Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Background Varying terminology: New advertising, one-to-one marketing, integrated marketing, etc.. It has emerged naturally mainly due to changes in three main areas: - The market place - Media and Communications - Consumers Primarily driven by advances in information technology Has lead to more customer-centered, database-driven, interactive and mesurable approaches.
Five definitions to IMC 1. Definition by The American Ass. Of Advertising Agencies (1989) The most widely used and the most cited of the five Its states: ”A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines – generel advertising, direct responce, sales promotion, public relations – and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact.” Includes: the need for a marketing communications plan that unifies the various tools used to provide a synergy that would otherwise be lost. One spirit, one voice, one look All dicisplines should work together to become more eficient, but without losing their individual identity. Sees IMC as a concept and not a process.
1. Definition of IMC Inadequacies • It however lacked things like measurability and quantification analysis, drive for result, consumer orientation, aspects of creativity, cost-efectiveness, cost-efficiency, and interactivity (Kitchen and Schultz, 1999). • There is an exclusion of consumers and no guidelines to how effectiveness might be achieved. (Duncan and Gaywood, 1996) • Is IMC only about the use of multiple communication disciplines? • Lack of references on consumers, prospects, etc.. • It is problematic that the definition does not include measurement issues!
2. Definition of IMC 2. Definition by Don Schultz, Northwestern University( 1991) • ”IMC is the process of managing all sources of information about a product/service to which a customer or prospect is exposed which behaviorally moves the consumer towards a sale and maintains customer loyalty”. • This definition focuses on the consumer or prospect as well as the relationship between the brand and the customer. • Includes all contact points between the two. • Sees IMC as just process and not as a concept Inadequacies
3. Definition of IMC 3. Definition by Tom Duncan (1992 and 1994) • Definition of 1992:”The strategic coordination of all mesages and media used by an organization to collectively influence its percieved brand value.” • The revised definition of 1994: ”IMC is the process of strategically controlling or influencing all messagess and encouraging purposeful dialogue to create and nourish profitable relationships with customers and other stakeholders.” • This last definition by Duncan and Gaywood revised so that it would also include: • All employees, regulators and parties that come in contact with the organisation. • More emphasis on creating long-term effects by looking out for the relationship with those involved with the company.
3. Definition of IMC Inadequacies • Does not take the outside-in perspective into account. – messages can be both controlled and uncontrolled. • -The term control used might suggest a one-way viewpoint. • It does not mention any means of channels or communication you might use to obtain ”Encouraging purposefull dialogue”. • The aspects of measurability and evaluation of IMC programmes are not explicitly mentioned.
4. ”Definition” of IMC 4. Definition by Nowak and Phelps (1994) • Not a straightforward definition. dwell on the basic notions of the concept and fail to transcend deeper. • They found three conceptualisations: • One-voice marketing communications • Consists in providing a consistent image, position, message and/or theme across all comunication disciplines. • Integrated marketing communications (advertisements) • Includes both a brand image and a behavioral response • Coordinated marketing communication • Strives to achieve synergy through the coordination of all marketing activities that both develops awareness and build brand image as well as evokes a behavioral response.
5. Definition of IMC 5. Definition by Don Schultz and Heidi Schultz (1998) • Based on past studies and as well as experiences from different Organisations that have embraced the IMC approach: ”IMC is a strategic business process used to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programs over time with consumers, customers, prospects, and other targeted, relevant external and internal audiences.” • According to the creaters it focuses more on the business process. • Includes all of the concepts we have touched upon so far. • Also includes concepts like business process, evaluation, and measurability. • If you are still awake, you will find it to be too long and all- embracing which is problematic.