Comparisons. Campbell and Stanley (1966) suggest that in order to obtain the minimum of useful scientific information a researcher must make at least one formal comparison. In the following section, various commonly used designs are described. . Formal comparisons are important elements of some of these designs. In fact, it is often the lack of a formal comparison that weakens a design, and as a consequence lessens the confidence of the researcher in making any claims based on the research findi31719
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