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ENERGY SECURITY Vicepresidence for Sectors and Knowledge . Infrastructure and Environment Sector . Energy Division German Cruz December 2008 V Summit of the Americas 2009. Primary Energy. Crude oil is the more accessible and commercial form of primary energy around the world

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ENERGY SECURITYVicepresidence for Sectors and Knowledge . Infrastructure and Environment Sector . Energy DivisionGerman CruzDecember 2008V Summit of the Americas 2009
primary energy
Primary Energy
  • Crude oil is the more accessible and commercial form of primary energy around the world
  • Petroleum derivates can be used for transportation sector o thermal power generation
  • Other fossil sources like gas, or coal are used fundamentally for thermal power generation.
  • Other sources supply of primary energy, like hydro, wind, or solar, can be used only for electric power generation
primary energy supply
Primary Energy Supply

Source: OLADE SIEE, 2005

energy sector in latin america and the caribbean
Energy Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Energy production and consumption in the region is comparatively low, although these are rising.
  • The intensity of energy use and energy supply varies across the region.
  • Much of the region’s energy consumption is concentrated in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela.
  • Across the region, the sectors consuming the most energy are:
    • Industry (region-wide average of 38%)
    • Transportation (32% on average)
energy supply lac 2004
Other non-

Unsustainable

Timber

renewables,

0.5%

2.2%

Nuclear,

1.6%

Coal,

4.8%

Oil,

41.7%

Renewable,

24.8%

Natural gas,

24.5%

Energy supply LAC- 2004

Source: Altamonte, 2006. ‘Renewable Energy Sources in LAC: 2 years after Bonn’

renewable energy in lac
Renewable Energy in LAC*
  • Today, renewable sources of energy generate 24.8% of LAC’s electricity.
    • Studies indicate they could generate up to 47% of the electric demand estimated for 2030.
  • Biomass and biological wastes are another important source of renewable energy in the region
  • Central America and the Caribbean could replace between 10% and 50% of their gasoline consumption through the production of ethanol generated from sugar cane.

* LAC: Latin American and the Caribbean

hydropower
Hydropower
  • The region as a whole relies heavily on hydroelectricity (Brazil, Colombia, etc.)
  • The region holds 21 % of global hydro-generation capacity.
  • Most countries in the region use already a good portion of their hydraulic potential to generate electricity.
  • Most countries operate on the multi-megawatt range. However, small hydropower should be exploited as a good alternative given the high rainfall indices and rough topography of many countries.

Source: Huacuz, J., 2003

hydropower cont
Hydropower, cont.

Source: OLADE, 2005. ‘Energy Statistics Report 2005’

solar energy
Solar Energy
  • Thanks to its low cost is becoming an attractive means of bringing electricity to isolated rural communities.
    • The first solar cells cost around $200 dollars per watt. Today they cost less than $3 dollars per watt.
  • Peru- Sustainable Rural Electrification: Installation of 12,500 Photovoltaic systems in rural households ill-suited for grid extension in four regions of the country.
  • Chile- Rural Electrification Program: IDB financed US$40 million. Nearly 1,000 one-house photovoltaic systems have been installed in isolated rural dwellings.
geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy
  • Costa Rica generates 98 percent of its electricity through renewable sources, thanks in part to a growing reliance on geothermal energy.
  • Mexico is now the world’s third largest producer of geothermal electricity.
    • It generates 953 MW for around 6,600 GWh of geothermal energy per year, contributing 3.1% to the Mexico’s electricity supply (global geothermal supply is 0.442%).
    • Studies have shown a potential for 3,650 MW (20,460 GWh) that could provide more than 12% of total electricity generation.

Source: Gawell & Greenberg, 2007. ‘2007 Interim Report, Update on World Geothermal Dev.’

wind energy
Wind Energy
  • Most commercial RE alternative in the developed world. Estimated $71 billion invested in RE worldwide in 2007, of which 47% was for wind.
  • Principal component for decarbonizing society since free of GHG emissions
  • New materials, turbine designs and new technologies have slashed the cost per watt
wind energy lac
Wind Energy LAC
  • Good experiences with pilot projects at different levels: Costa Rica (commercial), Colombia (technical cooperation).
  • Brazil: Rapidly increasing its wind installed capacity:
    • 2006: 28MW
    • 2007: 237 MW
    • Expected increase from new projects: 1400 MW
  • Mexico - La Venta II: total installed capacity of 83.3 MW and 307,728 MWh estimated yearly average generation.
    • Expected increase 3000 MW for 2006-2014 according to the Mexican Wind Energy Association
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Sustained Biofuels
  • Certain importing markets will require biofuels that meet certain sustainability standards.
  • LAC has the potential to be at the forefront of creating a sustainable biofuels industry.
  • IDB partners with the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels to increase investment in sustainable biofuels.
  • The IDB is currently :
  • - Developing internal sustainability guidelines for biofuels
  • - Developing a “scorecard” to promote only the most sustainable biofuels
what lies ahead
What lies ahead
  • Increase energy efficiency and reduce harmful pollution while also promoting economic development.
  • Investment needed in Energy in LAC (2005-2030)
      • The energy demand in LAC will increase 75% by 2030.
      • Required investments: US$ 1,600 billion
  • In the next decade alone, LAC will require a 50% increase in its installed capacity, more than 90GW
renewable energy importance for poverty alleviation
Renewable Energy: Importancefor Poverty Alleviation
  • Energy security has important implications on Poverty
  • Poverty is still higher than in 1980 in both relative and absolute terms
  • Approx. 10% of total population (50 million people) does not have electricity
  • Poverty relief linked to increased energy consumption
  • For the 16 countries which are net importers of oil, the price increase of hydrocarbons poses an increasing challenge.
  • Some of LAC’s major exporters are experiencing reduction in the productivity of their deposits

Sustainable Energy: A priority for the IDB

challenges for the region
Challenges for the Region
  • Achieve sustainability of energy supply and rational use of resources
  • Energy access for all the population
  • Within the region some countries face:
    • Energy security issues and high energy bills
    • Urban pollution problems and extreme vulnerability to climate change
  • Regulatory and institutional frameworks
  • Pre-investment resources to support project preparation and development
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The Western Hemisphere is an energy net importer
  • The deficit originates from the energy gap of North America
  • With declining stocks, this gap will tend to widen with time.
  • Climate Change is likely to add extra strain to the energy deficit.
  • Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency will contribute to cover the energy deficit.
  • Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation are becoming part of Energy Security strategies.
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