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Island Hopping. Less Fun Than It Sounds. Battle of Midway (June 1942). Naval Battle: US lost 1 aircraft carrier, Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers. Battle of Iwo Jima (Feb . 1945). 70,000 Marines sent to invade the island Vs. 22,000 Japanese soldiers Results: US wins (takes a month)

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island hopping

Island Hopping

Less Fun Than It Sounds

battle of midway june 1942
Battle of Midway(June 1942)

Naval Battle: US lost 1 aircraft carrier, Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers

battle of iwo jima feb 1945
Battle of Iwo Jima(Feb. 1945)

70,000 Marines sent to invade the island

Vs.

22,000 Japanese soldiers

Results: US wins

(takes a month)

About 7,000 US dead

About 20,000 US wounded

Only 212 Japanese soldiers taken prisoner

Island was 4.5 Miles x 2.5 Miles

battle for okinawa april 1945
Battle for Okinawa(April 1945)

180,000 US troops

Vs.

120,000 Japanese troops

Results: US wins

About 12,000 US dead

About 38,000 US wounded

36 US warships destroyed

About 110,000 Japanese soldiers dead

50,000-150,000 Japanese civilians dead

60 Miles x 2-18 Miles

the firebombing of japan

The Firebombingof Japan

“[We] were behaving as war criminals.”

– Robert McNamara

firebombing
Firebombing
  • 67 Japanese cities were firebombed by the United States during WWII
  • Firebombs utilize napalm – a jellied gasoline
    • Bombs explode, fired spreads, burns everything indiscriminately
  • As many as 500,000 Japanese killed (mostly civilians), and as many as 5 million left homeless
the fog of war
The Fog of War
  • Robert McNamara discussing the firebombing of Japan
    • “[General Curtis LeMay said that] if we'd lost the war, we'd all have been prosecuted as war criminals …. And I think he's right. …He, and I'd say, I, were behaving as war criminals. …LeMayrecognized that what he was doing would be thought immoral if his side had lost. But what makes it immoral if you lose and not immoral if you win?”
potsdam declaration

Potsdam Declaration

“The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction”

potsdam declaration1
Potsdam Declaration
  • Proclamation Defining the Terms for the Japanese Surrender – July 26, 1945
  • Developed at the Potsdam Conference
    • U.S., Britain, and U.S.S.R participated in the conference; held in Germany
    • Decisions were made as to how the Allies would deal with the Axis powers after Allied victory
potsdam declaration and japan
Potsdam Declaration and Japan
  • Elimination of Japanese authorities who led Japan to world conquest
  • Parts of Japanese territory are to be occupied; Allies get to pick which parts
  • Japanese sovereignty is limited to the 4 main islands and a few other tiny ones
potsdam declaration and japan1
Potsdam Declaration and Japan
  • Elimination of Japanese authorities who led Japan to world conquest
  • Parts of Japanese territory are to be occupied; Allies get to pick which parts
  • Japanese sovereignty is limited to the 4 main islands and a few other tiny ones
  • Japanese military will be completely disarmed
  • All (Japanese) war criminals will receive “stern justice”
potsdam declaration and japan2
Potsdam Declaration and Japan
  • Japan will not be enslaved or destroyed as a nation
  • Freedom of speech, religion, and thought, along with fundamental human rights, shall be established
  • Japan will have access to—but not control of—resources that they need to rebuild and sustain their economy, and will be free to maintain industries as long as they are not re-arming
  • Allies occupying forces will be withdrawn as soon as all of these objectives are met and Japan has established a peaceful, responsible government
potsdam declaration and japan3
Potsdam Declaration and Japan
  • "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.”
potsdam declaration and japan4
Potsdam Declaration and Japan
  • Despite a growing number of Japanese leaders who wanted to negotiate for peace, Japan’s military leadership was unwilling to accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration.
  • However, it is known that Japan’s Foreign Minister, Shigenori Togo, sent a message to Russia stating: “Unconditional surrender is the only obstacle to peace….”