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What Is SET? • SET is an open encryption and security specification designed to protect credit card transactions on the Internet. • SET is in effect a set of protocols for ensuring security and confidentiality. • SET is a relatively new standard. It was first used in February 1996 and was proposed by Visa and MasterCard.
Provide confidentiality of ordering and payment information. Ensure the integrity of all transmitted data Provide authentication that a cardholder is a legitimate user of a credit card account. Provide authentication that a merchant can accept credit card transactions through its relationship with a financial institution. Requirements That SET Must Accomplish
Key Features of SET • Confidentiality of information. • Integrity of Data. • Cardholder account authentication. • Merchant authentication.
Confidentiality of Information A credit card holder’s personal and payment information is secured as it travels across the network. An interesting feature of SET is that the merchant /seller never sees the credit card number; this is only provided to the issuing bank. Conventional encryption using DES is used to provide confidentiality.
Integrity of Data Payment information sent from cardholders to merchants include order information, personal information and payment instructions. SET guarantees that these message contents are not altered in transit. RSA digital signatures, using SHA-1 hash codecs, provide message integrity.
Cardholder Account Authentication SET enables merchants to verify that a cardholder is legitimate user of a valid card account number. SET uses X.509v3 digital certificates with RSA signatures for this purpose.
Merchant Authentication SET enables cardholders to verify that a merchant has a relationship with a financial institution allowing it to accept payment cards. SET uses X.509v3 digital certificates with RSA signatures for this purpose.
X.509 Authentication Service • X.509v3 – this is an authentication service which includes a public – certificate associated with each user. Certificates are assumed to be created by some trusted Certification Authority(CA), and then placed in a directory that can be viewed by others who need to verify the public-key of someone. CA signs the certificate with its private-key thereby authenticating the fact that this key does indeed belong to a user A.
X.509 Certificate • Version: there are differences between different versions of certificates. • Serial Number: unique integer value. • Issuer name: CA that created and signed the certificate • Period Of Validity: expiration date.
X.509 Certificate Cont’d • Subject Name: The name of the user to whom the certificate refers. • Subjects Public-key Information: public-key of the subject. • Signature: Covers all other fields of the certificate; it contains a hash code of all other fields, encrypted with the CA’s private key.
SET Participants • Cardholder • Merchant • Issuer • Acquirer • Payment Gateway • Certification Authority
Cardholder & Merchant • Cardholder • This is an authorized holder of a payment card (e.g, MasterCard, Visa) that has been issued by an issuer. • Merchant • This is a person or organization who has things to sell to the cardholder. A merchant that accepts credit cards must have a relationship with an acquirer
Issuer & Acquirer • Issuer • This is a financial institution such as a bank that provides the card holder with the payment card. • Acquirer • This is a financial institution that establishes an account with the merchant and processes credit card authorizations and payments. The acquirer provides authorization to the merchant that a given card account is active and that the proposed purchase does not exceed the credit limit. The Acquirer also provides electronic payments transfers to the merchant’s account.
Payment Gateway • This is a function that can be undertaken by the acquirer or some third party that processes merchant payment messages. • The payment gateway interfaces between SET and the existing bankcard payment networks for authorization and payment functions.
Certification Authority(CA) • This is an entity that is entrusted to issue X.509v3 public-key certificates for cardholders, merchants, and payment gateways.
Events required for a Successful SET Transaction • Customer Opens an account – customer gets a credit card account from, such as a Visa or MasterCard, with a bank that supports SET. • The Customer receives a certificate – the customer receives an X.509v3 digital certificate which is signed by the bank. This certificate verifies the customers public key and it’s expiration date.
Events required for a Successful SET Transaction Cont’d • Merchant Certificates – the merchant must have two(2) certificates for the two public keys it owns. One for signing messages with and one for key exchange. The merchant also needs a copy of the payment gateway’s public-key certificate. • The customer places an order.
Events required for a Successful SET Transaction Cont’d • Merchant Verification – The merchant sends an order form to the customer, as well as a copy of the merchants certificate, so the customer can verify that he/she is dealing with a valid store. • Order & Payment Sent – The customer sends order information (OI) and payment information(PI) to the merchant together with the customers certificate so the merchant can verify that he is dealing with a valid customer. The PI is encrypted in such a way that the merchant cannot read it.
Events required for a Successful SET Transaction Cont’d • Merchant Requests PI authorization – The merchant forwards the PI to the payment gateway, to determine whether the customer has sufficient funds/credit for the purchase. • Merchant Confirms the order – merchant sends confirmation of the order to the customer. • Merchant ships goods and services. • Merchant requests payment – this request for payment is sent to the payment gateway, which handles payment processing
SET’s Dual Signature • This is an innovation introduced by SET. The purpose of the dual signature is to link two (2) messages that are going to different recipients. • The customer needs to send OI and PI, to merchant and bank respectively. • The merchant does not need to know the customers credit card number (PI). • The bank does not need to know what the customer is buying (OI).
Purchase Request – Merchant • verifies cardholder certificates using CA sigs • verifies dual signature using customer's public signature key to ensure order has not been tampered with in transit & that it was signed using cardholder's private signature key • processes order and forwards the payment information to the payment gateway for authorization (described later) • sends a purchase response to cardholder
Payment Gateway Authorization • verifies all certificates • decrypts digital envelope of authorization block to obtain symmetric key & then decrypts authorization block • verifies merchant's signature on authorization block • decrypts digital envelope of payment block to obtain symmetric key & then decrypts payment block • verifies dual signature on payment block • verifies that transaction ID received from merchant matches that in PI received (indirectly) from customer • requests & receives an authorization from issuer • sends authorization response back to merchant
Payment Capture • merchant sends payment gateway a payment capture request • gateway checks request • then causes funds to be transferred to merchants account • notifies merchant using capture response