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Boundless Lecture Slides

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  1. Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  2. Using Boundless Presentations Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: • The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. http://boundless.com/teaching-platform • Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. If you have any questions or problems please email: educators@boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  3. About Boundless • Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  4. Rebuilding Europe The Interwar Period The Russian Revolution The Great Depression The Rise of Fascism ] Hitler and the Third Reich The Interwar Period Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  5. The Interwar Period > Rebuilding Europe Rebuilding Europe • Reparations • The Weimar Republic • Self-Determination and New States • The Kellogg-Briand Pact Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-interwar-period-1354/rebuilding-europe-1355/

  6. The Interwar Period > The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution • The Russian Revolution of 1905 • Rising Discontent in Russia • The Provisional Government • The October Revolution • The Russian Civil War • Formation of the Soviet Union Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-interwar-period-1354/the-russian-revolution-1360/

  7. The Interwar Period > The Great Depression The Great Depression • The Financial Crisis of the 1930s • Decline in International Trade Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-interwar-period-1354/the-great-depression-1367/

  8. The Interwar Period > The Rise of Fascism The Rise of Fascism • Mussolini and Fascist Italy • Fascism • Fascism in Japan • Franco's Spain • The Decline of European Democracy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-interwar-period-1354/the-rise-of-fascism-1370/

  9. The Interwar Period > Hitler and the Third Reich Hitler and the Third Reich • Adolf Hitler • The Nazi Party • Hitler's Rise to Power • Antisemitism in Nazi Germany • Lebensraum and Anschluss Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-interwar-period-1354/hitler-and-the-third-reich-1376/

  10. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  11. The Interwar Period Key terms • "Heim ins Reich"A foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938. The aim of Hitler's initiative was to convince all Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) living outside of Nazi Germany (in Austria and the western districts of Poland) that they should strive to bring these regions "home" into Greater Germany and relocate from outside German-controlled territories following the conquest of Poland in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet pact. • "master race"A pseudo-scientific concept in Nazi ideology in which the Nordic or Aryan races, thought to predominate among Germans and other northern European peoples, were deemed the highest in an assumed racial hierarchy. • annexationThe political transition of land from the control of one entity to another. It is also the incorporation of unclaimed land into a state's sovereignty, which is in most cases legitimate. In international law it is the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state or the legal process by which a city acquires land. Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral, and weaker of the two merging entities, barring physical size. • AnschlussThis is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938, but the idea goes back to the 19th century. • AryanA racial grouping term used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid-20th century to describe multiple peoples. It has been variously used to describe all Indo-Europeans in general (spanning from India to Europe), the original Aryan people specifically in Persia, and most controversially through Nazi misinterpretation, the Nordic or Germanic peoples. The term derives from the Aryan people from Persia, who spoke a language similar to those found in Europe. • autarkyThe quality of being self-sufficient, usually applied to political states or their economic systems that can survive without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses all trade with the outside world then it is called a closed economy. • Beer Hall PutschA failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during November 8-9, 1923. About two thousand men marched to the center of Munich where they confronted the police, resulting in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. • Beer Hall PutschA failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler — along with Erich Ludendorff and others — to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during November 8-9, 1923. About two thousand men marched to the center of Munich where they confronted the police, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. • Black TuesdayThe most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its aftereffects. The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September, signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries. • Bolshevik partyLiterally meaning "one of the majority," this party was a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. • ChekaThe first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Polish aristocrat turned communist. These troops policed labor camps; ran the Gulag system; conducted requisitions of food; subjected political opponents to secret arrest, detention, torture, and summary execution; and put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army. • Decree on LandWritten by Vladimir Lenin, this law was passed by the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on October 26, 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. It decreed an abolition of private property and the redistribution of the landed estates among the peasantry. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  12. The Interwar Period • Enabling ActA 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. It passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on March 24, 1933, and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day. • Enabling Act of 1933A 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. • eugenicsA set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. • FalangismA Fascist movement founded in Spain in 1933 and the one legal party in Spain under the regime of Franco. • fascismA form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. It holds that liberal democracy is obsolete and that the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state is necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. • February RevolutionThe first of two Russian revolutions in 1917. It involved mass demonstrations and armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy. On March 12, mutinous Russian Army forces sided with the revolutionaries. Three days later, the result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the end of the Romanov dynasty, and the end of the Russian Empire. • fin-de-siècleFrench for end of the century, a term which typically encompasses both the meaning of the similar English idiom turn of the century and also makes reference to the closing of one era and onset of another. The term is typically used to refer to the end of the 19th century. This was widely thought to be a period of degeneration, but at the same time one of hope for a new beginning. It often refers to the cultural hallmarks that were recognized as prominent in the 1880s and 1890s, including ennui, cynicism, pessimism, and "...a widespread belief that civilization leads to decadence." • First Five-Year PlanA list of economic goals created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country, implemented between 1928 and 1932. In 1929, Stalin edited the plan to include the creation of collective farming systems that stretched over thousands of acres of land and had hundreds of peasants working on them. • Francisco FrancoA Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. He took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and was in power 1978, when the Spanish Constitution of 1978 went into effect. • gold standardA monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. • Great PurgeA campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1938. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs," imprisonment, and arbitrary executions. • Hitler YouthThe youth organization of the Nazi Party in Germany, which originated in 1922. From 1933 until 1945, it was the sole official youth organization in Germany and was partially a paramilitary organization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  13. The Interwar Period • hyperinflationThis occurs when a country experiences very high and usually accelerating rates of inflation, rapidly eroding the real value of the local currency and causing the population to minimize their holdings of local money by switching to relatively stable foreign currencies. Under such conditions, the general price level within an economy increases rapidly as the official currency loses real value. • indemnitiesAn obligation by a person to provide compensation for a particular loss suffered by another person. • Iron GuardThe name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. It was ultra-nationalist, antisemitic, anti-communist, anti-capitalist, and promoted the Orthodox Christian faith. Its members were called "Greenshirts" because of the predominantly green uniforms they wore. • Joseph StalinThe leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. • July DaysEvents in 1917 that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between July 3 and 7 when soldiers and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous armed demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks initially attempted to prevent the demonstrations and then decided to support them. • Karl MarxA German-born scientist, philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His theories about society, economics, and politics—collectively understood as Marxism—hold that human societies develop through class struggle; in capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labor for wages. Through his theories of alienation, value, commodity fetishism, and surplus value, he argued that capitalism facilitated social relations and ideology through commodification, inequality, and the exploitation of labor. • Kellogg–Briand PactA 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them." • KristallnachtA pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on November 9-10, 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues were smashed. • LebensraumGerman for "living space," this term refers to policies and practices of settler colonialism proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s. • Marxism–LeninismA political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Classical Marxism and Leninism that seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further. They espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of Marxism and Leninism, but generally support the idea of a vanguard party, one-party state, proletarian state-dominance over the economy, internationalism, opposition to bourgeois democracy, and opposition to capitalism. It remains the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam, a number of Indian states, and certain governed Russian oblasts such as Irkutsk. It was the official ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the other ruling parties that made up the Eastern Bloc. • Meiji RestorationAn event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji, leading to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanning both the late Edo period (often called the Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period spanned from 1868 to 1912 and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early 20th century, and its rapid rise to great power status in the international system. • Mein KampfA 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work outlines Hitler's political ideology and future plans for Germany. In it, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril," which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the anti-semitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same anti-semitic views, which became crucial in his program of national reconstruction of Germany. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  14. The Interwar Period • modernityA term used in the humanities and social sciences to designate both a historical period as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes, and practices that arose in post-medieval Europe and have developed since, in various ways and at various times, around the world. As a historical category, it refers to a period marked by a questioning or rejection of tradition; the prioritization of individualism, freedom, and formal equality; faith in inevitable social, scientific, and technological progress and human perfectibility; rationalization and professionalization; a movement from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism and the market economy; industrialization, urbanization, and secularization; and the development of the nation-state and its constituent institutions (e.g. representative democracy, public education, modern bureaucracy). • multilateral treatyA treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties. Each party owes the same obligations to all other parties, except to the extent that they have stated reservations. • Nansen passportInternationally recognized refugee travel documents, first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees. • National Socialist German Workers PartyA political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practiced the ideology of Nazism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920. The party emerged from the German nationalist, racist, and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. • Night of the Long KnivesA purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany. Many of those killed were leaders of the SA (Sturmabteilung), the Nazis' own paramilitary Brownshirts organization; the best-known victim was Ernst Röhm, the SA's leader and one of Hitler's longtime supporters and allies. • Nuremberg LawsAntisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced on September 15, 1935, by the Reichstag at a special meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households, and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were classed as state subjects without citizenship rights. • Nuremberg RallyThe annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938. They were large Nazi propaganda events, especially after Hitler's rise to power in 1933. • October RevolutionA seizure of state power by the Bolshevik Party instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on October 25, 1917. It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year. • personality cultWhen an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods to create an idealized, heroic, and at times worshipful image, often through unquestioned flattery and praise. • protectionismThe economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and other government regulations. • Red ArmyThe army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. • Reichstag Fire DecreeThis decree was issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler in direct response to the Reichstag fire of February 27, 1933. The decree nullified many of the key civil liberties of German citizens. With Nazis in powerful positions in the German government, the decree was used as the legal basis for the imprisonment of anyone considered an opponent of the Nazis and to suppress publications not considered "friendly" to the Nazi cause. The decree is considered by historians to be one of the key steps in the establishment of a one-party Nazi state in Germany. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  15. The Interwar Period • reparationsPayments intended to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. Generally, the term refers to money or goods changing hands, but not to the annexation of land. • Russian Constitution of 1906A major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament. It was enacted on May 6, 1906, on the eve of the opening of the first State Duma. • Russian Provisional GovernmentA provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March. • RussificationA form of cultural assimilation during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia, aimed at Russian domination. • self-determinationA principle of international law that states that peoples, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference. • settler colonialismA form of colonial formation whereby foreign people move into a region. An imperial power oversees the immigration of these settlers who consent, often only temporarily, to government by that authority. This colonization sometimes leads, by a variety of means, to depopulation of the previous inhabitants, and the settlers take over the land left vacant by the previous residents. • ShintoA Japanese ethnic religion that focuses on ritual practices carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Its practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. This term applies to the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami), suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals. • Shōwa periodThe period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926, through January 7, 1989. This period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor. During the pre-1945 period, Japan moved into political totalitarianism, ultranationalism, and fascism culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937. This was part of an overall global period of social upheavals and conflicts, such as the Great Depression and World War II. Defeat in World War II brought radical change to Japan. • Social DarwinismA name given to various ideologies emerging in the second half of the 19th century, trying to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest in human society. It was largely developed by Herbert Spencer, who compared society to a living organism and argued that just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection, society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes. • SovietPolitical organizations and governmental bodies, essentially workers' councils, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, that gave the name to the latter state. • Spanish Civil WarA war from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, and the Nationalists, a falangist, Carlist, and a largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco. • speculationThe purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. In finance, it is the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions to profit from short-term fluctuations in the market value of a trade-able financial instrument rather than from its underlying financial attributes such as capital gains, dividends, or interest. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  16. The Interwar Period • St. Petersburg SovietA workers' council or soviet circa 1905. The idea of a soviet as an organ to coordinate workers' strike activities arose during the January–February 1905 meetings of workers at the apartment of Voline (later a famous anarchist) during the abortive revolution of 1905. However, its activities were quickly repressed by the government. The model would later become central to the communists during the Revolution of 1917. • stab-in-the-back legendThe notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918-19. Advocates denounced the German government leaders who signed the Armistice on November 11, 1918, as the "November Criminals." • Stab-in-the-back mythThe notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19. Advocates denounced the German government leaders who signed the Armistice on November 11, 1918, as the "November Criminals." When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they made the legend an integral part of their official history of the 1920s, portraying the Weimar Republic as the work of the "November Criminals" who seized power while betraying the nation. • State DumaThe Lower House of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg. It convened four times between April 1906 and the collapse of the Empire in February 1917. It was founded during the Russian Revolution of 1905 as the Tsar's response to rebellion. • statismThe belief that the state should control either economic or social policy or both, sometimes taking the form of totalitarianism, but not necessarily. It is effectively the opposite of anarchism. • tariffA tax on imports or exports. • Treaty of Brest-LitovskA peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. Part of its terms was the renouncement of Russia's claims on Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. • Tsar Nicholas IIThe last Emperor of Russia, ruling from November 1894 until his forced abdication on March 15, 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. Due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution, the execution of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War, he was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody by his political adversaries. • Vladimir LeninA Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party socialist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. • White ArmyA loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1923) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly World War II. • Young PlanA program for settling German reparations debts after World War I, written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. After the Dawes Plan was put into operation in 1924, it became apparent that Germany would not willingly meet the annual payments over an indefinite period of time. This new plan reduced further payments by about 20 percent. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  17. The Interwar Period Hitler and Mussolini Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were the two most prominent fascist dictators, rising to power in the decades after World War I. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Hitlermusso2_edit.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism#/media/File:Hitlermusso2_edit.jpgView on Boundless.com

  18. The Interwar Period Anschluss German and Austrian border police dismantle a border post in 1938. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_137-049278,_Anschluss_Österreich.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anschluss#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_137-049278,_Anschluss_Osterreich.jpgView on Boundless.com

  19. The Interwar Period Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act Willis C. Hawley (left) and Reed Smoot in April 1929, shortly before the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act passed the House of Representatives. Many historians contend that the Act worsened the worldwide economic depression. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."440px-Smoot_and_Hawley_standing_together,_April_11,_1929.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoot-Hawley_Tariff_Act#/media/File:Smoot_and_Hawley_standing_together,_April_11,_1929.jpgView on Boundless.com

  20. The Interwar Period Statism in Japan Emperor Shōwa riding his stallion Shirayuki during an Army inspection, August 1938. By the 1930's, Japan had essentially become a military dictatorship with increasingly bold expansionist aims. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."400px-Emperor_Shōwa_Army_1938-1-8.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Showa_period#/media/File:Emperor_Showa_Army_1938-1-8.jpgView on Boundless.com

  21. The Interwar Period Hyperinflation in Weimar Republic One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923. In 1919, one loaf of bread cost 1 mark; by 1923, the same loaf of bread cost 100 billion marks. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-00193,_Inflation,_Ein-Millionen-Markschein.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar_Republic#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-00193,_Inflation,_Ein-Millionen-Markschein.jpgView on Boundless.com

  22. The Interwar Period Kellogg–Briand Pact Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."BriandKellogg1928c.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg-Briand_Pact#/media/File:BriandKellogg1928c.jpgView on Boundless.com

  23. The Interwar Period Francisco Franco A photo of Francisco Franco in 1964. Franco strove to establish a fascist dictatorship similar to that of Germany and Italy, but in the end did not join the Axis in WWII. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Francisco_Franco_en_1964.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Franco#/media/File:Francisco_Franco_en_1964.jpgView on Boundless.com

  24. The Interwar Period March on Rome Benito Mussolini with three of the four quadrumvirs during the March on Rome: from left to right: unknown, de Bono, Mussolini, Balbo and de Vecchi. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."March_on_Rome.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism#/media/File:March_on_Rome.jpgView on Boundless.com

  25. The Interwar Period Beer Hall Putsch Nazis in Munich during the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during November 8-9, 1923. About two thousand men marched to the center of Munich where they confronted the police, resulting in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-1486,_Hitler-Putsch,_München,_Marienplatz.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-1486,_Hitler-Putsch,_Munchen,_Marienplatz.jpgView on Boundless.com

  26. The Interwar Period Beer Hall Putsch Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right: Pernet, Weber, Frick, Kiebel, Ludendorff, Hitler, Bruckner, Röhm, and Wagner. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-00344A,_München,_nach_Hitler-Ludendorff_Prozess.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-00344A,_Munchen,_nach_Hitler-Ludendorff_Prozess.jpgView on Boundless.com

  27. The Interwar Period Hitler in World War I Hitler (far right, seated) with his army comrades of the Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment 16 (c. 1914–18) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1974-082-44,_Adolf_Hitler_im_Ersten_Weltkrieg.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1974-082-44,_Adolf_Hitler_im_Ersten_Weltkrieg.jpgView on Boundless.com

  28. The Interwar Period Nazi Party Hitler with Nazi Party members in 1930. By 1929, the party had 130,000 members. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-0289,_München,_Hitler_bei_Einweihung_"Braunes_Haus".jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-0289,_Munchen,_Hitler_bei_Einweihung_%22Braunes_Haus%22.jpgView on Boundless.com

  29. The Interwar Period Hitler, Chancellor of Germany Hitler, at the window of the Reich Chancellery, receives an ovation on the evening of his inauguration as chancellor, January 30, 1933. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1972-026-11,_Machtübernahme_Hitlers.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1972-026-11,_Machtubernahme_Hitlers.jpgView on Boundless.com

  30. The Interwar Period Reparations Avocourt, 1918, one of the many destroyed French villages where reconstruction would be funded by reparations. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."A_view_of_the_ruins_of_Avocourt,_situated_just_behind_the_American_trenches_before_the_Allied_drive_of_September_26..._-_NARA_-_530763.tif.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_reparations#/media/File:A_view_of_the_ruins_of_Avocourt,_situated_just_behind_the_American_trenches_before_the_Allied_drive_of_September_26..._-_NARA_-_530763.tifView on Boundless.com

  31. The Interwar Period Europe in 1923 The dissolution of the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires created a number of new countries in eastern Europe, such as Poland, Finland, Yugoslavia, and Turkey. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Europe_in_1923.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interwar_period#/media/File:Europe_in_1923.jpgView on Boundless.com

  32. The Interwar Period Russian Civil War Clockwise from top: Soldiers of the Don Army in 1919; a White Russian infantry division in March 1920; soldiers of the 1st Cavalry Army; Leon Trotsky in 1918; hanging of workers in Yekaterinoslav by Austro-Hungarian troups, April 1918. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia Commons."CWRArticleImage.jpg."Public domainhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CWRArticleImage.jpgView on Boundless.com

  33. The Interwar Period Russian Revolution of 1905 A locomotive overturned by striking workers at the main railway depot in Tiflis in 1905. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia Commons."Tiflis_railway_strike_1905.jpg."Public domainhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tiflis_railway_strike_1905.jpgView on Boundless.com

  34. The Interwar Period Discontent Leading up the Russian Revolution Russian soldiers marching in Petrograd in February 1917. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia Commons."Soldiers_demonstration.February_1917.jpg."Public domainhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Soldiers_demonstration.February_1917.jpgView on Boundless.com

  35. The Interwar Period July Days Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt in Petrograd just after troops of the Provisional Government opened fire in the July Days. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia Commons."19170704_Riot_on_Nevsky_prosp_Petrograd.jpg."Public domainhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:19170704_Riot_on_Nevsky_prosp_Petrograd.jpgView on Boundless.com

  36. The Interwar Period Lenin and Trotsky, Russian Revolutionaries Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, speaking at a meeting in Sverdlov Square in Moscow, with Leon Trotsky and Lev Kamenev adjacent to the right of the podium. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lenin-Trotsky_1920-05-20_Sverdlov_Square_(original).jpg."Lenin-Trotsky_1920-05-20_Sverdlov_Square_(original).jpg."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution#/media/File:Lenin-Trotsky_1920-05-20_Sverdlov_Square_(original).jpgView on Boundless.com

  37. The Interwar Period Lenin and Stalin (1922) Toward the end of his life, Lenin became increasingly anxious about Stalin and began criticizing him and urging his removal as general secretary. Despite these misgivings, Stalin eventually replaced Lenin as the leader of the USSR. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Lenin_and_stalin.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia#/media/File:Lenin_and_stalin.jpgView on Boundless.com

  38. The Interwar Period Great Depression Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression. The widespread panic after the Stock Market Crash of 1929 resulted in a bank crisis with massive bank runs, which occur when a large number of customers withdraw cash from deposit accounts with a financial institution at the same time because they believe that the institution is or might become insolvent. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."American_union_bank.gif."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression#/media/File:American_union_bank.gifView on Boundless.com

  39. The Interwar Period Kristallnacht Damage caused during Kristallnacht. On November 9-10, 1938, a pogrom against Jews was carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians throughout Nazi Germany. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-083-42,_Magdeburg,_zerstörtes_jüdisches_Geschäft.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-083-42,_Magdeburg,_zerstortes_judisches_Geschaft.jpgView on Boundless.com

  40. The Interwar Period Greater Germany and Lebensraum The Greater Germanic Reich, to be realized with the policies of Lebensraum, had boundaries derived from the plans of the Generalplan Ost. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Greater_Germanic_Reich.png."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebensraum#/media/File:Greater_Germanic_Reich.pngView on Boundless.com

  41. The Interwar Period Attribution • Wikipedia."World War I reparations."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_reparations • Wikipedia."War reparations."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_reparations • Wikipedia."Stab-in-the-back myth."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stab-in-the-back_myth • Wikipedia."Weimar Republic."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar_Republic • Wikipedia."Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperinflation_in_the_Weimar_Republic • Wikipedia."Interwar period."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interwar_period • Wikipedia."Self-determination."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-determination • Wikipedia."Aftermath of World War I."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aftermath_of_World_War_I • United Nations Treaty Collection."League of Nations: Treaty Series, 1929."Public domainhttps://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/LON/Volume%2094/v94.pdf • Wikipedia."Kellogg-Briand Pact."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg-Briand_Pact • Wikipedia."State Duma (Russian Empire)."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_Duma_(Russian_Empire) • Wikipedia."1905 Russian Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1905_Russian_Revolution • Wikipedia."Russian Constitution of 1906."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Constitution_of_1906 • Wikipedia."Russification."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russification • Wikipedia."Russian Empire."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire • Wikipedia."Russin Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution • Wikipedia."History of Russia."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  42. The Interwar Period • Wikipedia."History of Russia (1892-1917)."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia_(1892-1917) • Wikipedia."Russian Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution • Wikipedia."History of Russia."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia • Wikipedia."Russian Provisional Government."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Provisional_Government • Wikipedia."Russian Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution • Wikipedia."History of Russia."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia • Wikipedia."October Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Revolution • Wikipedia."White movement."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_movement • Wikipedia."Russian Revolution."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution • Wikipedia."Red Army."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Army • Wikipedia."Russian Civil War."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Civil_War • Wikipedia."History of the Soviet Union."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Soviet_Union • Wikipedia."History of Russia."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Russia • Wikipedia."Joseph Stalin."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin • Wikipedia."Soviet Union."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union • Wikipedia."Great Depression."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression • Wikipedia."Wall Street Crash of 1929."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wall_Street_Crash_of_1929 • Wikipedia."Causes of the Great Depression."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_the_Great_Depression • Wikipedia."Great Depression in the United States."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_the_United_States Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  43. The Interwar Period • Wikipedia."Protectionism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protectionism • Wikipedia."Great Depression."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression • Wikipedia."Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act."CC BY 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoot-Hawley_Tariff_Act • Wikipedia."Fin de siècle."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fin_de_siecle • Wikipedia."Fascism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism • Wikipedia."Italian Fascism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Fascism • Wikipedia."Fascism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism • Wikipedia."Francoist Spain."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francoist_Spain • Wikipedia."Francisco Franco."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Franco • Wikipedia."Falangism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falangism • Wikipedia."Fascism and ideology."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism_and_ideology • Wikipedia."Fascism In Its Epoch."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism_In_Its_Epoch • Wikipedia."Fascism."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism • Wikipedia."History of Japan."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Japan • Wikipedia."Statism in Shōwa Japan."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statism_in_Showa_Japan • Wikipedia."Shōwa period."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Showa_period • Wikipedia."Beer Hall Putsch."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_Hall_Putsch • Wikipedia."Adolf Hitler."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler • Wikipedia."Nazi Party."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  44. The Interwar Period • Wikipedia."Adolf Hitler."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler • Wikipedia."Reichstag Fire Decree."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichstag_Fire_Decree • Wikipedia."Night of the Long Knives."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_of_the_Long_Knives • Wikipedia."Hitler's Rise to Power."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler%27s_rise_to_power • Wikipedia."Adolf Hitler."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler • Wikipedia."Enabling Act of 1933."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enabling_Act_of_1933 • Wikipedia."Nazi Germany."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany • Wikipedia."Kristallnacht."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kristallnacht • Wikipedia."Nuremberg Laws."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws • Wikipedia."Racial policies of Nazi Germany."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany • Wikipedia."Nazi Germany."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany • Wikipedia."Lebensraum."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebensraum • Wikipedia."Anschluss."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anschluss • Wikipedia."Heim ins Reich."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heim_ins_Reich Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com