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Fire Detection and Suppression. Chapter 4 Fire Pumps. Fire Pump Functions. The main function of a fire pump is to increase the pressure of the water that flows through it. Inadequate or nonexistent municipal water supply system Sprinkler systems and standpipe systems.

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Presentation Transcript
fire pump functions
Fire Pump Functions
  • The main function of a fire pump is to increase the pressure of the water that flows through it.
    • Inadequate or nonexistent municipal water supply system
    • Sprinkler systems and standpipe systems

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Split-case pumps (see Fig. 4.2 in manual)
    • Horizontal: not self-priming
  • (Continued)

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types4
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Horizontal: not self-priming

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types5
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Single-stage and multiple-stage
  • Maintenance
    • Packing gland
    • Wear rings

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types6
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Split-case pumps (cont.)
    • Vertically mounted

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types7
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Vertical shaft turbine pumps

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

common fire pump types8
Common Fire Pump Types
  • Pressurized water source

Fire Pumps

pump drivers
Pump Drivers
  • Engines or motors used to turn the pump
  • Power requirements
  • Types
    • Electric motors
      • Required power

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump drivers10
Pump Drivers
  • Mounting

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump drivers11
Pump Drivers
  • Mounting (cont.)
  • Maintenance

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump drivers12
Pump Drivers
  • Types (cont.)
    • Diesel engine drivers
      • Engine power
      • Gear drives
      • Engine requirements
      • Cooling system
      • Fuel storage
      • Maintenance

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump drivers13
Pump Drivers
  • Types (cont.)
    • Steam turbines
      • Horizontal and vertical shaft
      • Limited feasibility

Fire Pumps

pump controllers
Pump Controllers
  • Govern pump operation
  • Controllers for electricmotor-driven pumps
    • Switches
    • Multiple pumpsconnected in parallel
    • Manual shutdown

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump controllers cont
Pump Controllers (cont.)
  • Diesel engine controllers
    • Main function is to close the circuit between the storage batteries and the engine starter motor.
    • Alarm and signal devices

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump controllers cont16
Pump Controllers (cont.)
  • Pressure recording device
  • Manual shutdown
  • Weekly startup

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories
Pump Installation Components and Accessories
  • Pipe and fittings
    • Materials
    • Valves
    • Standards
      • Suction piping: NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances
      • Discharge piping: NFPA 24 and NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
    • Sizing (Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Relief valves
    • Prevent pressures that are high enough to damage system piping or fittings
    • Required only if pressure at churn is high enough to damage system components
    • Sizing

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont19
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Circulation relief valve: provides enough water flow into and out of the pump to prevent the pump from overheating when operating at churn against a closed system
  • Test equipment
    • Test manifold
    • GPM metering device

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont20
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Pressure maintenance pumps
    • Prevent false starts due to fluctuations in pressure of water supply to pump
    • Small-capacity, high-pressure pumps that maintain constant pressure on system

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont21
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Gauges
    • Horizontal split-case pumps and vertical shaft pumps
      • One gauge near discharge port
      • One gauge near intake
    • Vertical turbine pump: single gauge on discharge side

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont22
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Component arrangement
    • Typical arrangement

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont23
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
  • Additional bypass line

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

pump installation components and accessories cont24
Pump Installation Components and Accessories (cont.)
    • Horizontal-shaft pump installation (See Fig. 4.23 in manual)
    • Vertical-shaft pump installation (See Fig. 4.24 in manual)
  • Standard performance specifications: NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Testing fire pumps
    • Piping: hydrostatic testing
    • Acceptance testing
      • Certified shop test curves
      • Standard performance points:

1. Maximum of 140 percent of rated pressure at 0 gpm.

2. Minimum of 100 percent of rated pressure at 100 percent of rated flow.

3. A minimum of 65 percent of rated pressure at 150 percent of rated flow.

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance26
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Equipment needed for pump tests
    • One section of 2 1/2-inch or larger hose for each hose connection on the test header
    • One Underwriters playpipe for each hoseline
    • Method for safely securing playpipes
    • Pitot tube and gauge
    • Method of measuring pump speed
    • Voltmeter and ammeter

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance27
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Conversion of velocity pressure to gpm:

Q=(29.83)(Cd)(D2)(√P)

Where:

Q=Flow in gpm

Cd=Coefficient of discharge

D=Discharge orifice diameter

P=Nozzle pressure

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance cont
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance (cont.)
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump

Step 1: Calculate the expected pitot pressure for 100 percent and 150 percent of the rated flow.

Step 2: Connect all the hoselines and nozzles.

Step 3: Close the indicating control valve that separates the pump from the fire system.

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance29
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump (cont.):

Step 4: Connect the ammeter and voltmeter to the test leads in the controller or at any other appropriate location.

Step 5: If using a handheld revolution counter to measure pump speed, remove end plate of motor for access to shaft.

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance30
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump (cont.):

Step 6: If end of shaft is not accessible, use a strobe-type tachometer.

Step 7: Start the pump.

Step 8: Open the control valve in the line leading to the test header and open the hose valves for the first gpm measurement.

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance31
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump (cont.):

Step 9: Open and adjust sufficient lines to exact required pitot pressures for 100 percent of rated flow.

Step 10: When all readings are complete and recorded, open and adjust additional hoselines to the exact required pitot pressures for 150 percent of the rated flow.

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance32
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump (cont.):
    • Repetitions
      • Manually controlled
      • Automatically controlled
      • Electrically driven pump

(Continued)

Fire Pumps

testing inspection and maintenance33
Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
  • Acceptance test on an electric horizontal split-case pump (cont.):
    • Evaluating data
      • Performance curves
      • Pump speed
      • Voltage and current for electrically driven pump
  • Acceptance test on a vertical shaft electric pump
  • Acceptance test on a diesel driven pump

Fire Pumps