Vineyard Preparation and Layout Gerard Logan
Vineyard Layout • Post-vineyard planning; • Surveyors return to peg the corners • Layout is checked against the plan • “Measure twice, cut once” • Further adjustments made • Detailed marking out can then begin
Last Critical Assessments • This is the last chance to reconfirm the following; • Waterway location • Soil type variation • Block layout • Row orientation • Headlands • Roads • Irrigation design • Dam and bore locations
Calculations of Ground Distance • Pythagoras theorem • Horizontal distance 100m, 10% slope, ground distance z; • Z = √x2 + y2 • Z = √1002 + 102 • Z = √10100 • Z = 100.498m • Thus; 3m row spaces require 3.018m on the ground to give flat layout • Failure to ensure this results in curves on trellis matrix and variable row width
Calculations of Ground Distance • Trigonometric calculation • If given the angle of slope (∞ = 8°), trigonometry will yield the same result; • Z = x/Cos ∞ • Z = 100/Cos 8 • Z = 100/0.992 • Z = 100.98m
Squaring the vineyard block using a straight edge To ensure a rectangle has been achieved: Ensure: A - D = B - C A - B = C - D Check: A - C = B - D
Soil Preparation • Soils vary greatly – especially in Hawke’s Bay • This directly impacts soil preparation • Grapevines are tough plants, but balance can be severely effected • Thus poor soil environment, produces weak, unproductive vines • Preparation and maintenance of soil is therefore critical
Subsoil Treatment • Subsoil is difficult to access and difficult to alter • Poor structure however, must be rectified for drainage and root penetration
Subsoil Treatment • Generally; • Sandy soils require minimal preparation • Benefits from a single rip line • Loams and light clays are easily ripped and softened for planting • Medium/Heavy clays require more ripping and cracking • Cross-ripping and gypsum addition can start improving soil structure • Permeability decreases with colour change; • Red>Brown>Yellow>Black>Grey
Deep Ripping • Essential in most sites pre-planting • Fracture and loosen soil down to 1m deep • Single tined ripper fractures 1.5x its lengthin dry soil • Normally sites ripped along vine rowswith bulldozer • Bulldozer guided by; • Laser guide • Pegs • Guide line
Deep Ripping • If the soil is too wet, ripping will only slice soil • If soil is too dry, ripping causes cloddy soil • Heavy soils require; • Multiple rip lines • 80cm tines placed 1m apart • Cross ripping at 90°, or better, 60° angles across the block yields optimum shatter for root penetration • Generally only the vine lines are ripped
Advantages and disadvantages of strip working and cross ripping in vineyard preparation
Soil Amendments • Does the soil require amendments? • Test results • Yes? • Amendments should be made before trellis installation • Broad spectrum spreaders cheaper/more effective
Soil Amendments • Acid soils • Lime (CaCO3) • Soil should be pH 6.0 • Improve Ca content and nutrient availability • Lime is best when Ca:Mg is below 3:1 (5:1 optimal) • Acid subsoils require deep banding of lime • Avoid overliming (Max. 6T/ha at once) • Monitor K, Mg, B, Zn deficiencies after liming
Soil Amendments • Acid soils (continued) • Dolomite (CaCO3 + MgCO3) • Used to maintain balance of Ca:Mg near 5:1 when pH requires adjustment • Usually 13% Ca, 8% Mg (depends on source) • Mg deficiencies limited to topsoil due to leaching
Soil Amendments • Sodic soils • Soils high (>6%) in Na • Dense and cloddy • High Na or low Ca • Soils become dense and airless • Gypsum (CaSO4) is used to provide soluble Ca • Does not change soil pH • Avoid >6T/ha, increased salt reduces water uptake
Soil Amendments • Organic matter • Essential to maintain soil biology and structure • Green manure crops • Brassica’s very useful • Provide biofumigation • Forage rape, mustards and canola contain glucosinolate • Reduces nematodes, beetle larvae, cutworms and other pests
Soil Amendments • Nutrition • N, K essential for young vines • Balanced levels of all macro and micronutrients required for optimal plant growth • Very important subject area in obtaining balanced vines
Liebig’s Law of the minimum • Well regulated metabolism depends upon elements being provided in suitable proportions • Macronutrient • Micronutrient • Adequate quantities • Appropriate proportions • If one is limiting – growth will be restricted
Greatest limiting factor • If one element alone is not available in sufficient quantities, plant performance is limited to the extent of the supply of that element. • If two elements are not available in sufficient quantities, the most deficient element will be what limits growth.
Essential elements • These criteria must be meet: • Deficiency prevents plant from completing life cycle • Deficiency is specific for the element in questions • Element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant • Constituent of an essential metabolite • Required for activity of an enzyme system
Nutrients • Elements are required in different amounts • Macronutrients • N P K Ca Mg S • Micronutrients • B Cl Cu Fe Mn Mo Zn • A micronutrient deficiency has the same impact on plant growth and development as a macronutrient deficiency
Deficiencies • Individual deficiency of elements can result in characteristic growth restrictions or alterations in the colour and shape of leaves and shoots. • Deficiencies are not always obvious. • By the time that visible symptoms exist, a significant loss of growth may have occurred.
Nitrogen • 1-2% of dry matter, ~ 2 kg/T grapes, primary component of proteins, chlorophyll and energy transfer.
Phosphorus • 0.1-0.3% of dry matter, ~ 0.6 kg/T grapes, component of cell membranes, part of compounds that fix CO2, metabolise sugars and store energy.
Potassium • Up to 3% of dry matter, ~5 kg/T of grapes, provides electrical balance within cells, and maintains cell turgor, but is not part of plant structural components
Manganese • A catalyst involved in chlorophyll formation and nitrogen metabolism
Sulphur • Component of proteins and an enzyme co-factor
Magnesium • The central element of chlorophyll
Iron • Involved in chlorophyll formation and energy trapping and transfer in photosynthesis
Calcium • Important part of cell walls
Zinc • Catalyst for enzyme function
Boron • Involved in hormone regulation of growth and pollen germination
Copper • Component of enzymes for oxidation
Molybdenum • Involved in nitrogen metabolism
Nutrient supply • Most nutrients in a soil are unavailable (98%) • Most available nutrients are in solution (~0.2%) • Nearly all nutrients are bound to either soil humus or soil mineral fractions • Remaining fraction bound to colloids or chelates (2%) • Explains differences in nutrient supply of sand and clay soils
Cations and anions • The negative charge on organic and inorganic colloids retain cations • Most anions exist organically bound in humus • Anions do not sorb well onto soil particles, and are comparatively mobile and readily leached out of soil • Tendency of ions to sorb to colloids decreases in the order: • Ca2+ Mg2+ NH3+ K+ • PO43- SO43- NO3- Cl-
Nutrient uptake • Dependant on physiological characteristics of the scion and rootstock • Uptake and storage of nutrients in the permanent structures of the vine can take place throughout the growing season • Post harvest depleted nutrient supplies can be replenished.
Use of nutrients by vines • Amount of nutrients extracted is relatively small • Senesced leaves are returned • Pruning's largely returned • Fruit removed • Estimated removal (kg/Ha/yr) from 20t crop • N 38-60 • P 8-12 • K 60-62 • Mg 3-10
Soil analysis • Need to watch soil testing • Grapes are deep rooted and heterogeneous • Surface samples may not represent the soil profile • Not an absolute assessment • 2g of 1000 ton • Measures soluble nutrient concentration • Not necessary a reflection of nutrient availability • Nitrogen source hard to establish • N content in constant flux NO3 NH3, OM equilibria • Fertiliser applications are not even • Soil tests are good to establish pH and salinity issues
pH and nutrient availability • Picture of ph and nut aval. include boxes from soil acidity lecture
Tissue analysis • Gives an assessment of a plants integration with its environment • Allows comparisons • Across a range of sites and vines • Between good and poor parts of the vineyard • Where and when to sample are important factors • Nutrient concentration change over time • Young organs generally have a higher concentration • Need to account for a spray programme • A programme of leaf analysis over a number of seasons will enable a predictive measure of likely deficiency developing and will allow one to monitor the response to fertiliser application.