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Sigmund Freud. Austrian neurologist and father of the psychoanalytic Theory. In the Beginning. Freud was born in Freiberg Moravia, but lived most of his live in Vienna. Attended the university of Vienna and worked with one of the leading physiologists of his day; Ernst von Brucke.

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sigmund freud

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist

and father of the

psychoanalytic

Theory.

in the beginning
In the Beginning
  • Freud was born in Freiberg Moravia, but lived most of his live in Vienna.
  • Attended the university of Vienna and worked with one of the leading physiologists of his day; Ernst von Brucke.
  • Became a lecturer in neuropathology in 1885.
  • Freud wrote a book called “Project for a Scientific Psychology.” This was written when he came up with the intention to find a physiological and materialist basis for his theories of the psyche. In the late 1885 he moved to Vienna and worked in a clinic where he was influenced to the theory that psychological disorders might have their source in the mind rather than the brain.
  • Fred got married in 1886.
  • Shortly after his marriage he began working with a Berlin physician Wilhelm Fliess who had a role in the development of of the psychoanalysis theory.
  • Freud was responsible for developing the following ideas;
  • psychoanalytic theory
  • interpretation of dreams
  • id, ego, super ego
slide4

Social Scientist Influence

  • Sigmund Freud, physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century.
  • He is also known as one of the most influential intellectual legislator of his age.
  • Founder of the psychoanalysis theory.
  • Created a theory of the human psyche, a therapy for the relief of its ills and optic for the interpretation of culture & society.
  • Freud elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system. He articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure, all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. 
  • He simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, and clinical techniques for attempting to help unhappy people. Many people claim to have been influenced by one but not the other.
  • Other psychologists were influenced by Freud's thought, though they were not professionally associated with him.
the mind is like an iceberg it floats with one seventh of its bulk above water s freud
"The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water" (S. Freud)
  • Freud elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system. He articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure, all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions.
  • He simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, and clinical techniques for attempting to help unhappy people. Many people claim to have been influenced by one but not the other.
  • At this time he developed an interest in the pharmaceutical benefits of cocaine.
the talking cure
The Talking Cure.
  • He became interested in hypnotism and how it could be used to help the mentally ill. He later abandoned hypnotism in favor of free association and dream analysis in developing what is now known as “The Talking Cure.”
  • One of Freuds patients “Anna O” was suffering from a variety of hysterial symptoms and they treated her with “the talking cure.” Freud working with Charcot Breuer put her into a lapse into a state resembling autohypnosis where she would talk about initial manifestations of her symptoms. This was believed to be the “talking cure,” they believed it acted cathartically to produce an abresactions, or discharge of the pent-up emotional blockage at the root of the pathological behaviour.
interpretation of dreams
Interpretation of Dreams
  • Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud has made to modern thought is his conception of the unconscious. During the 19th century the dominant trend in Western thought was positivism, the claim that people could accumulate real knowledge about themselves and their world, and exercise rational control over both. Freud, however, suggested that these claims were in fact delusions; that we are not entirely aware of what we even think, and often act for reasons that have nothing to do with our conscious thoughts. The concept of the unconscious was groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and there were thoughts occurring "below the surface." Dreams, called the "royal road to the unconscious", provided the best examples of our unconscious life, and in the interpretation of dreams, Freud both developed the argument that the unconscious exists, and described a method for gaining access to it.
  • Most people, who rejected elements of Freud's work, accept the claim that part of the mind is unconscious, and that people often act for reasons of which they are not conscious.
id ego superego
Id, Ego, Superego
  • Sigmund Freud proposed that the unconscious was divided into three parts: Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id represented primary process thinking; our most primitive need gratification type thoughts. The Superego represented our conscience and counteracted the Id with moral and ethical thoughts. The Ego stands in between both to balance our primitive needs and our moral/ethical beliefs. A healthy ego provides the ability to adapt to reality and interact with the outside world in a way that accommodates both Id and Superego. The general claim that the mind is not a monolithic or homogeneous thing continues to have an enormous influence on people outside of psychology
stages of development
Stages of Development
  • Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse," meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. He further argued that, as humans developed, they fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in controlling his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage where they fixated on the parent of the opposite sex and thought the same-sexed parent a rival. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay need gratification.
social scientific thinking
Social Scientific Thinking
  • Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings, in order to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego. Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging the patient to talk in "free-association" and to talk about dreams. Another important element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. Through this process, called "transference," the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts with (or about) parents.
other areas of expertise
Other Areas of Expertise
  • A lesser known interest of Freud's was neurology. He was an early researcher on the topic of cerebral palsy, then known as "cerebral paralysis". He published several medical papers on the topic. He also showed that the disease existed far before other researchers in his day began to notice and study it. He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during the birth process being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom of the problem. It was not until the 1980s when his speculations were confirmed by more modern research.
summary of psychoanalysis theory
Summary of Psychoanalysis Theory
  • Psychoanalysis was first devised in Vienna in the 1890s by Sigmund Freud, a doctor interested in finding an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. As a result of talking with these patients Freud came to believe that their problems stemmed from culturally unacceptable, thus repressed and unconscious desires and fantasies of a sexual and as his theory developed, aggressive nature. Since Freud's day psychoanalysis has developed in many ways especially as a study of the personal, inter-personal and intra-subjective sense of self.
  • The basic method of psychoanalysis is the transference and resistance analysis of free association. The patient, in a relaxed posture, is directed to say whatever comes to mind. Dreams, hopes, wishes, and fantasies are of interest, as are recollections of early family life. Generally the analyst simply listens, making comments only when, in his or her professional judgment, an opportunity for insight on the part of the patient arises. In listening, the analyst attempts to maintain an attitude of empathic neutrality , a nonjudgmental stance designed to create a safe environment. The analyst asks that the analysand speak with utter honesty about whatever comes to awareness while interpreting the patterns and inhibitions that appear in the patient's speech and other behavior.
potential ethical concerns
Potential Ethical Concerns
  • Critics of Freud contend that the proposed exhibition validates Freud's psychological practices, which they say have no worth or science in them
  • Psychologists often work with vulnerable individuals in sensitive situations. An important step in becoming a mental health professional or consumer of psychological services is to be aware of the ethical issues faced by psychologists. If you are providing psychological services you are obligated to remain informed regarding current ethical standards or issues. If you are a consumer of psychological services, the professional should keep you informed regarding your rights. If you find yourself in a situation where ethical standards are being violated or have doubts regarding the correct course of action, consult with a colleague
  • Freud’s prudence as a scientist was questioned he had a lifelong willingness to attempt bold solutions to relieve human suffering.
  • Freud believed that cocaine helped with eye surgery and came up with a few benefits but the general outcome was disastrous. This is one ethical concern associated with Freud's practices. He lead one of this close friends to addiction and another one let cocaine tarnish his medical career
ethical concerns
Ethical Concerns
  • Shortly after Freud got married he began working with a Berlin physician Wilhelm Fliess who had a role in the development of the psychoanalysis. Fleiss gave Freud crazy ideas.
  • Freud’s belief in bisexuality, his idea of erotogenic zones on the body and his imputation of sexuality to infants were stimulated by their friendship.
  • Freud started a skepticism belief towards religion.