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Potential Difference. Potential. A charged particle has potential energy due to its position relative to another charged object (Electric Potential Energy) The + particle has potential energy at position A

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Presentation Transcript
potential
Potential
  • A charged particle has potential energy due to its position relative to another charged object (Electric Potential Energy)
  • The + particle has potential energy at position A
  • Once the particle moves to B all PE is changed to KE
  • (-) plate has low potential, (+) plate has high potential
definition
Definition
  • Potential (V) is defined as the PE per charge V = PE/ q
  • Units J/C 1 J/C = 1 Volt (V)
  • Note that only changes in PE are measurable – called Potential Difference
  • Potential difference = Voltage
equation
Equation
  • ΔPE = qV
  • Voltage is a measure of how much energy an electric charge can acquire
  • Since change in energy is the ability to do work, it is also a measure of how much work
  • W = qV
measurement
Measurement
  • Voltmeter – instrument used to measure V between 2 points
example 1
Example 1
  • An electron in the picture tube of a TV is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of +5000V a) what is the change in PE b) what is the electron’s speed c) how much work is done?
example 2
Example 2
  • The terminals of a 12V battery differ in potential by 12V. Suppose that a wire is connected between the + and – terminal and 3.0 C of charge travels between them. How much work is done?
example 3
Example 3
  • An electron loses 3.45 x 10-16J of PE as it moves from plate A to B in a computer monitor. What is the voltage between the plates and which plate has the highest potential?
electric field
Electric Field
  • Amount of potential difference (voltage) is related to the strength of the electric field
  • W = qV
  • W = Fd
  • F = qE
  • qV = qEd
  • V = Ed or E = V/d
units of electric field
Units of Electric Field
  • Either N/C or V/m
example
Example
  • Two parallel plates are charged to 50V. If the plates are separated by .050m, what is the electric field they produce?
small energy unit
Small Energy Unit
  • J is traditional unit of energy, but with very small particles this unit appears very large
  • Smaller unit of energy is used for these called the electron volt (eV)
  • Before doing a problem, always change eV to J

1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J

example1
Example
  • What potential difference is needed to give a particle of charge of 3μC a total of 3.54 x 109 eV of energy?