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  1. Hawaii Spirit of the Islands: Past and Present

  2. Hawaiian tradition describes the land (‘aina) as mother ‘Aina means “that which feeds” Land does not belong to the Hawaiians, rather Hawaiians belong to the land and are a part of the land Hawaiians regard themselves as “kanaka maoli” Spirit of the Islands

  3. Hawaiian tradition involved constant communication with other living things, the land, the rocks, the ocean, and the spirits of the ancestors All parts of the island, living and nonliving, had a special meaning and purpose Spirit of the Islands

  4. Because the land belonged to no one, anything coming from the land was shared Fishermen, farmers, and woodsmen did not tend their own “property” but did their jobs for everyone’s benefit Sharing was a lifestyle Spirit of the Islands

  5. The only parts of the island that were off limits were those considered kapu These areas were reserved for Hawaiian gods Islands were divided into wedges or ahupua’a by the chiefs or kings Ahupua’a contained ridges on both sides of a valley, forested uplands, some shoreline, and extended out to the ocean The division of ahupua’a made each wedge a self-sustaining environment for the people Spirit of the Islands

  6. Most all of the people living within an ahupua’a were family Both blood relatives, and extended family or, ‘ohana ‘Ohana encompasses many generations Elders- kupuna Parents/middle generation- makua Children- kamali’i There was no difference between cousin, aunt, uncle, parent. All members of the same generation were considered siblings Spirit of the Islands

  7. Piko was considered a way to be connected with the ancestors, the living kanaka maoli, and all future generations There were 3 piko, or centers that made kanaka maoli feel attached to each other as a group Piko waena- the navel, the memory of the conncetion between mother and child Piko po’o- the opening between bones in a baby’s skull that does not close until after birth, the spiritual connection to the ancestors and nature Piko ma’i- the genetials, connection to future generations Spirit of the Islands

  8. Kanaka maoli believe that on earth they are in human form, but came from other forms and will return in other forms before and after this life Time in the human form is short After this life, kanaka maoli come back to earth in spiritual form as‘aumakua ‘Aumakua are thought to protect the family by warning, guiding, and informing them ‘Aumakua can be in the form of a an animal, plant, rock, breeze, cloud, even a new child in the family Spirit of the Islands

  9. Kanaka maoli believe in many gods that take form in nature One chant called the “He Kumulipo” describes the origins of the islands The literal translation is “at the time of the hot earth, turning against the changing sky” The hidden meaning: mating between sky-father Wakea and earth mother Papa According to this chant, the taro plant originated from one of the early children of these gods that died The taro plant sprouted from the burial place and became the staple food It is also another form of Kane, a Hawaiian god When eating taro, one is eating Kane and taking in his godly power Spirit of the Islands

  10. Kane-the supreme god, ancestor of all chiefs and commoners, took the form of an owl Ku-patron god of war, brought about rain, growth, successful fishing Hawaiian Gods • Kanaloa- god of the ocean, companion of Kane, took form in an octopus or squid

  11. Lono-god of thunder, clouds and wind. Took on many forms. Honored during the annual mahahiki harvest festival. James Cook visited during this festival time. Some believe the Hawaiians mistook Cook for Lono’s return because the ships sails looked like clouds Hawaiian Gods

  12. Pele- fire goddess. Responsible for current eruptians of Kilauea She traveled from island to island looking for a home. Found her home on the Big Island where she built a palace of fire (the Kilauea volcano) She is a lesser god in Hawaiian beliefs Hawaiian Gods

  13. “Talking story” is how kanaka maoli passed on their oral traditions and beliefs By locals taking time to sit and tell stories, ancient Hawaiian beliefs and traditions have been passed on through many generations without written record Talking Story

  14. Ancient Hawaii • For the most part the kanaka maoli were a non-violent people • However, conflicts between neighboring chiefs did arise and there was warfare • Warrior classes tested their strength against each other. This was very ritualistic in nature

  15. After the arrival of James Cook and other Westerners, the values of the kanaka maoli changed Rather than restoring balance, the goal of war became about the acquisition of goods. In particular, the sandlewood trade played a role in this shift in thinking Once the natural world was part of the ‘ohana of the kanaka maoli, now the natural world represented resources and power Ancient Hawaii

  16. Ancient Hawaii • Everything the kanaka maoli did was for a reason and a purpose • Preparing and eating a meal had a certain process • Caring for the sick had to be done at a certain time of day with certain prayers and thoughts • Dances, chants, and rituals had to be done perfectly • By doing these actions deliberately, the Hawaiians believed it gave them a direct communication line with their gods

  17. Ancient Hawaii • Gods “responded” by patterns in the fire, images in a dream, wind, thunder, even a thought • These responses were interpreted as signs from the gods and answers to their prayers • Everything happens and exists for a reason in this belief system

  18. Kanaka Maoli Today • From the moment Westerners first arrived in Hawaii, the kanaka maoli have been losing their true culture and heritage a little more each day • Hawaiian’s sense of balance is deeply rooted in the natural environment

  19. Kanaka Maoli Today • As land has been lost, so too have the traditions of the kanaka maoli • As well as losing land, the kanaka maoli population has been declining due to diseases introduced by Westerners and inter-racial mixing

  20. Kanaka Maoli Today • Today the kanaka maoli, once thriving, now have: • Shortest life expectancy • Highest death rate from disease, strokes, and diabetes • Highest suicide rate • Highest substance abuse rate • Less than 2% graduation rate from the University of Hawaii • Highest drop out rate • 40% of the Oahu prison population • Highest rate of homelessness

  21. Kanaka Maoli Today • Most Hawaiians today are not full-blooded Hawaiian due to the many other ethnic groups on the island and racial mixing • Those who are part-Hawaiian usually claim their Hawaiian heritage first as a point of pride • Six other ethnic groups have made their place on the island

  22. Chinese-one of Hawaii’s most prominent, influential, and financially successful groups Japanese-orinally came to Hawaii as immagrints working in plantations with labor contracts. Established a population and now have many cultural influences in all aspects of the islands Hawaii’s Ethnic Blend

  23. Filipinos- first group to come were acrobats and musicians. Next wave to come were immagrint laborers working on the sugarcane plantations Koreans- overall education and income levels are they highest of any ethnic group in Hawiian. Less than 3% of the population but have successfully established themselves in business Hawaii’s Ethnic Blend

  24. Hawaii’s Ethnic Blend • Samoans-most immigrants came after World War I to join the growing Morman community. • Brought with them the laid back lifestyle of old Hawaii and had difficulty adapting at first. • Have been able to retain much of their culture.

  25. Hawaii’s Ethnic Blend • Caucasians • Known as “haole”- comes from ancient Hawaiians believing those with pale skin could not possibly be alive. Means “without life”. Sometimes used in a negative light. • This phrase originated at the arrival of James Cook • Caucasians are the fastest growing ethnic group • The negativity stems from the fact that newcomers to the island often want to exploit the island’s resources for tourism purposes rather than protecting the land

  26. Kanaka Maoli Making a Comeback • The Hawaii Department of Education has established Hawaiian language immersion in schools promoting kanaka maoli pride and the continued use of proper Hawaiian language • Children and parents now take classes and are taught the native language • Hawaiian is not a written language and historians still have not determined all of the details of the origin of the language

  27. Language • Most local Hawaiians speak a mixture of English and Hawaiian called “pidgin” • Example:“Hey, pau hana like go my hale for grind? Get plenty ‘ono pupu-even pipikaula and poke in da fridge.” • Translation:“Hey after work would you like to go to my house to eat? We’ve got plenty of tasty appetizers, even some beef jerky and raw fish marinated with seaweed in the refrigerator.”

  28. Aloha- love, farewell,greetings Kokua- help Mahola- thank you Malihini- newcomer to the island (us  ) Kanaka- man Wahine- woman Keiki- child Haole- Caucasian foreigner Heiau-traditional Hawaiian temple Common Hawaiian Words

  29. Music and Hula • Music was an important part of ancient Hawaiian ritual • Religious songs and chants helped connect the kanaka maoli with their gods • Hula with song was used as a spiritual tool, a teaching tool, and entertainment • Every move and word has a deep meaning and must be done correctly • It was believed that “practicing” the action you could control that action in the future

  30. Music and Hula • There were specific hulas done for successful hunts, fertility, and other desired successes • Going to hula school for Hawaiians could be compared to someone going to a monastery to study the priesthood

  31. Lei • Lei’s can be made of flowers, leaves, shells, and paper • Special symbol or gift given as a sign of respect and were used in dances and chants • Lei’s are draped over statues or images of important people • Each island has its own special material for making lei

  32. Food and Lu’au • The many ethnic groups in Hawaii have each contributed in their own way to island cuisine • Hawaii is one of the world’s most diverse culinary places • An example: Expect sticky white rice with ever meal at Hawaii Preparatory Academy due to the heavy Asian influence…even with your eggs at breakfast 

  33. Food and Lu’au • Lu’aus were generally family “get togethers” but have since been commercialized for tourism purposes • Most foods at lu’aus are authentic, including kaluha pig cooked in an underground rock oven, poi, sweet potatoes, ‘opihi (shellfish), and salmon • In ancient times, women were not allowed to eat with men at a lu’au. When kapu was abolished, the lu’au became a time of celebration for special events

  34. Food and Lu’au • Now lu’aus are highly dramatized for the tourist with flashy hula and stories of Hawaiian legends