Note: The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery.
Note: UDP is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that has no flow and error control. It uses port numbers to multiplex data from the application layer. It is also used by multimedia applications.
Note: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented reliable transport layer protocol. It adds connection-oriented and reliability features to the services of IP.
Note: A leaky bucket algorithm shapes bursty traffic into fixed-rate traffic by averaging the data rate. It may drop the packets if the bucket is full.
Flowchart for Leaky Bucket Algorithm
Note: Integrated Services is a flow-based QoS model designed for IP.
Note: Differentiated Services is a class-based QoS model designed for IP.
Figure 23.28Relationship of service classes to the total capacity
Chapter 25 DomainName System
25.1 Name Space Flat Name Space Hierarchical Name Space
25.2 Domain Name Space Label Domain Name
25.6 DNS Messages Header Question Section Answer Section Authoritative Section Additional Information Section
25.3 Distribution of Name Spaces Hierarchy of Name Servers Zone Root Server Primary and Secondary Servers
Note: A primary server loads all information from the disk file; the secondary server loads all information from the primary server.