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Lecture 10

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  1. Lecture 10

  2. Transport layer duties

  3. Note: The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery.

  4. UDP and TCP

  5. Figure 22.2Port numbers

  6. Figure 22.3IP addresses versus port numbers

  7. Figure 22.4IANA ranges

  8. Figure 22.5Socket address

  9. Figure 22.6Multiplexing and demultiplexing

  10. Note: UDP is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that has no flow and error control. It uses port numbers to multiplex data from the application layer. It is also used by multimedia applications.

  11. Table 22.1 Well-known ports used by UDP

  12. Note: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented reliable transport layer protocol. It adds connection-oriented and reliability features to the services of IP.

  13. Table 22.2 Well-known ports used by TCP

  14. Table 22.4 States for TCP

  15. Congestion ControlandQuality of Service

  16. Figure 23.1Traffic descriptors

  17. Figure 23.2Constant-bit-rate traffic

  18. Figure 23.3Variable-bit-rate traffic

  19. Figure 23.4Bursty traffic

  20. Figure 23.5Incoming packet

  21. Figure 23.9BECN

  22. Figure 23.10FECN

  23. Figure 23.11Four cases of congestion

  24. Figure 23.12Flow characteristics

  25. Figure 23.13FIFO queue

  26. Figure 23.14Priority queuing

  27. Figure 23.15Weighted fair queuing

  28. Figure 23.16Leaky bucket

  29. Figure 23.17Leaky bucket implementation

  30. Note: A leaky bucket algorithm shapes bursty traffic into fixed-rate traffic by averaging the data rate. It may drop the packets if the bucket is full.

  31. Flowchart for Leaky Bucket Algorithm

  32. Example of Leaky Bucket Algorithm

  33. Note: Integrated Services is a flow-based QoS model designed for IP.

  34. Note: Differentiated Services is a class-based QoS model designed for IP.

  35. Figure 23.25Relationship between traffic control attributes

  36. Figure 23.26User rate in relation to Bc and Bc + Be

  37. Figure 23.27Service classes

  38. Figure 23.28Relationship of service classes to the total capacity

  39. Chapter 25 DomainName System

  40. 25.1 Name Space Flat Name Space Hierarchical Name Space

  41. 25.2 Domain Name Space Label Domain Name

  42. Figure 25.1Domain name space

  43. Figure 25.2Domain names and labels

  44. 25.6 DNS Messages Header Question Section Answer Section Authoritative Section Additional Information Section

  45. Figure 25.3FQDN and PQDN

  46. Figure 25.4Domains

  47. 25.3 Distribution of Name Spaces Hierarchy of Name Servers Zone Root Server Primary and Secondary Servers

  48. Figure 25.5Hierarchy of name servers

  49. Figure 25.6Zones and domains

  50. Note: A primary server loads all information from the disk file; the secondary server loads all information from the primary server.