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Unit 1.1Healthy and Active Lifestyles. The development of active leisure and recreation. Key terms Active vs sedentary Health & Fitness Recreation & Leisure Contemporary concerns Adaptations and responses. The development of active leisure and recreation. Requirements for participation

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Unit 1.1Healthy and Active Lifestyles


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    1. Unit 1.1Healthy and Active Lifestyles • The development of active leisure and recreation • Key terms • Active vs sedentary • Health & Fitness • Recreation & Leisure • Contemporary concerns • Adaptations and responses

    2. The development of active leisure and recreation • Requirements for participation • Fitness • Ability • Resources • Time Activity; Identify four different societal groups, one for each requirement, who might argue that they can not participate because they have not got sufficient…….

    3. Concepts of recreation and active leisure • Definitions of; • Recreation; “The use of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entitlement entertainment or rest, recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. • Leisure; “is the period of discretionary time before or after compulsory activities such as eating and sleeping, going to work or running a business, attending school and doing homework, household chores, and day-to-day stress….”

    4. The development of active leisure and recreation • Recreative sport and mass participation Sport for all, Mass participation, Inclusive strategies.

    5. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns …are concerns that are pertinent and relevant for a society at a given time. For the UK in the 21st century the following have been identified as being contemporary concerns • Obesity • Coronary Heart Disease • Diabetes • High blood pressure • High cholesterol • Metabolic syndrome • Stress • Sedentary lifestyles • Ageing population Activity; Identify any concerns that are contemporary for our society today but that would not have been relevant for earlier societies

    6. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Obesity • “Without intervention the figures on obesity in the UK will rise to 33% of men and 28% of women by 2010.” • So, what is it and what is causing it to develop?

    7. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Coronary Heart Disease • “CHD is the most common cause of sudden death and is also the most common reason for death of men and women over 20 years of age. “ • Caused by plaque deposits within blood vessels. • What causes the plaque? • What effect does the plaque have on the vessels?

    8. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Coronary Heart Disease • “CHD is the most common cause of sudden death and is also the most common reason for death of men and women over 20 years of age. “ • Caused by plaque deposits within blood vessels. • What causes the plaque? • What effect does the plaque have on the vessels?

    9. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Coronary Heart Disease • The following have been identified as increasing the risk of CHD • Diabetes • High blood pressure • High LDL "bad" cholesterol • Low HDL "good" cholesterol • Menopause • Not getting enough physical activity or exercise • Obesity • Smoking If Prevention is seen to be better than cure for CHD what would you prescribe?

    10. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Diabetes • Diabetes is when the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels efficiently. • An inability to take glucose out of the blood, - Insulin deficient (Hyperglycemic • An inability to get glucose into the blood, - Glucagon deficient (Hypoglycemic)

    11. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: High blood pressure • High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but can cause serious problems such as increased risk of heart attack, angina, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral artery disease (PAD). stroke and kidney failure • Low blood pressure is equally dangerous. • What dangers could high and low blood pressure have on an individual?

    12. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: High Cholesterol • Cholesterol is bound to proteins, the more proteins the better the cholesterol. • High Density Lipids (HDL) is good cholesterol • Low Density Lipids (LDL) is bad Family history, obesity, diet, activity levels and age can all contribute to high levels of LDL cholesterol

    13. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: High blood pressure • High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but can cause serious problems such as increased risk of heart attack, angina, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral artery disease (PAD). stroke and kidney failure • Low blood pressure is also a dangerous physiological state • Optimal blood pressure is less than 120 mm Hg systolic and 80 mm Hg diastolic

    14. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Metabolic syndrome • Metabolic syndrome is…a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. • Such disorders as; • Abdominal obesity • blood fat disorders — high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high LDL cholesterol — that foster plaque buildups in artery walls) • Elevated blood pressure • Insulin resistance or glucose intoleranc • The likely hood of suffering from metabolic syndrome increases with a lack of physical activity, aging and hormonal imbalance • People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of coronary heart disease and other diseases related to plaque buildups in artery walls (e.g., stroke and vascular disease) and type 2 diabetes.

    15. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Stress • The body will only respond or adapt as a result of stress. • Exercise is stress that athletes manipulate in order to improve performance. • Stress provides us with challenge and mental and physical stimulation. • The body has physiological mechanisms that are invoked when we experience stress • It is when we are unable to deal with the stress and the symptoms build up without release that we might experience problems

    16. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Stress • The body will only respond or adapt as a result of stress. • Exercise is stress that athletes manipulate in order to improve performance. • Stress provides us with challenge and mental and physical stimulation. • The body has physiological mechanisms that are invoked when we experience stress • It is when we are unable to deal with the stress and the symptoms build up without release that we might experience problems

    17. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Stress • The symptoms evident when suffering from stress are; • anxiety or panic attacks • a feeling of being constantly pressured, hassled, and hurried • irritability and moodiness • physical symptoms, such as stomach problems, headaches, or even chest pain • allergic reactions, such as eczema or asthma • problems sleeping • drinking too much, smoking, overeating, or doing drugs • sadness or depression

    18. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Sedentary lifestyles • “Leading a sedentary lifestyle is more dangerous than smoking…..” • Refers to an inactive lifestyle. • What factors would facilitate an increased likelihood of leading a sedentary lifestyle in the 21st Century?

    19. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Ageing population • The 30 years up to 2006 saw an overall growth in population in the UK to 60.6million • HOWEVER; • The population of over 65’s grew by 31% while the under 16’s declined by 19% • For society that produces financial implications i.e. smaller taxable workforce supporting a larger pension claiming populous. Also the elderly are a target group re lack of active sporting participation.

    20. The development of active leisure and recreation Contemporary Concerns: Access, Opportunity and Provision. • If you are restricted from taking part in sport or activities for what ever reason then you do not have access. • Access is the result of both opportunity and provision. • Opportunity and provision to take part in sport will be largely determined by the society and its cultural values Saudi Arabia Muslim culture – prevents large gatherings of women, Values are religious which hinder women's participation. Peoples republic of China Communist ideology - pro sport; Values – pro sporting success, Significant provision to take part

    21. Healthy Lifestyles • Health, Fitness and Exercise Health and fitness have reference to an ability to meet the demands of environments; Health refers to a domestic environment, one of life and includes physical and mental well being. Fitness is a sporting environment and refers to the demands of the specific sport. Exercise is a physical activity undertaken for a positive physiological benefit. It can be manipulated to benefit physical and mental health as well as physical fitness.

    22. Health, fitness and exercise Healthy Lifestyles Positive health benefits • Hypokinetic disorders are those that can be partially or totally offset by regular exercise. • Although exercise is a stress, the physical activity of exercise can help to lessen the effects of the bodies stress response mechanisms. • Other psychological benefits would be; • Increased confidence, • Increased drive • Increased motivation, • A general feelings of mental well being, • Better able to concentrate and for longer periods • Better able to deal with stress.

    23. Health, fitness and exercise Healthy Lifestyles Energy expenditure and reduction in body fat Exercise within the context of health is often targeting weight management, - either fat loss, body mass increase, body weight maintenance Weight management is down to calorific in put and energy expenditure.

    24. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Energy expenditure and reduction in body fat • Fat loss should be slow and sustainable, 1 kg per week being an aspired target. • This allows the body to adapt to the new fat levels rather than accommodating a temporary change. • There are 3200 calories in one pound of fat! or 7040 calories to 1 kg

    25. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Energy expenditure and reduction in body fat Dangers of restricting calorific intake alone.

    26. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Metabolic Rate • Your Basal Metabolic Rate is the speed at which your body converts and uses calories to fuel the activities that you undertake. • Fat loss is often dependent upon maintaining a high BMR. • Calorific restriction alone can result in a lowering of your BMR

    27. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Metabolic Rate • Factors leading to a higher BMR; • Eating frequent meals • Exercise • Muscle mass • Age (up to peak physical maturation, mid 20’s) • Height • Getting pregnant • Environment • Hormones • Smoking/Caffeine

    28. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Coronary Heart Disease • What is it and what causes it? • How can exercise help to combat CHD? • Reducing fatty deposits within blood vessels • Maintaining artery elasticity • Reducing overall body fat content

    29. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Obesity • A calorie surplus is created when the calorific intake exceeds the calorific expenditure. excess is stored as fat. • If fat content exceeds 25% of the gender norm for body fat then the individual is clinically obese. • Exercise increases calorific expenditure.

    30. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Obesity and calorific expenditure.

    31. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Reducing the risk of Osteoporosis • Bone is living tissue that responds to exercise by becoming stronger. • The strength and density of a bone will increase the more it is used. • Equally if you are inactive then density and strength will deteriorate. • The best types of exercise are; • those where the bones are placed under stress directly, - weight bearing • Within this type of exercise are activities that use muscular strength to improve muscle mass and strengthen bone, - resistance exercise

    32. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Type II diabetes management • Insulin deficient. • Obesity and abdominal fat storage increases the likelihood of developing type II diabetes • Exercise helps to reduce and maintain low body fat levels.

    33. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Nutrition and weight management • Do you know the different food groups, the functions of each, your requirements of each and good dietary sources of each?

    34. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Identify the food groups contained within each of these foods

    35. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise

    36. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Nutrition and weight management • Why do we eat? • Hunger • Physical requirements? • How much do we need? • How many calories do we need and what percentage of those calories should come from carbohydrate, proteins and fats?

    37. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Water Water has many functions within the body e.g. • it aids digestion. • it makes up 90% of the blood and so aids …….. • it helps lubricate joints and cushions organs and tissues • in urine, it carries waste products out of the body • in sweat, it removes body heat generated during exercise • is essential for healthy skin

    38. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Hydration • Water is the single most important dietary component for an athlete. • Hydration is a state when optimal water retention is achieved. • Dehydration refers to a state when water has been lost to a point when physiological functioning is affected

    39. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Water loss. Losing water. • Through daily urine output. • Through we sweating, -, the more we exercise the more heat we generate and so the more water we lose. • Through respiration, • During ventilation. Where do we lose water from • Water is lost first from the blood • If water loss continues then non essential organs will donate water to the essential ones.

    40. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Re - hydration • The first sign of dehydration is thirst. By the time you experience thirst you are already dehydrated to an extent. If you experience thirst while performing then it will not be possible to achieve full hydration again until after the exercise or performance has stopped. • Electrolytes - are minerals soluble in body fluids and are associated with cell membrane electrical potentials. The main ones are sodium, potassium and chloride. • Losses of electrolytes can interfere with the bodies transport systems, upset fluid balance and effect thermo-regulation. Electrolyte imbalance can and will effect heart and muscle function

    41. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise The Food Pyramid The food pyramid is a way of demonstrating the specific dietary requirements usually for a specific, and identified, group.

    42. Healthy Lifestyles Health, fitness and exercise Cholesterol • Cholesterol is essential for the body • Different types of cholesterol, - high density (HDL) and low density (LDL). • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is classed as bad cholesterol while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the good stuff. • Women tend to have a higher levels of HDL cholesterol than men. • Too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease. • Exercise can help to combat a high cholesterol level and also the negative effects that result from too much cholesterol.

    43. Healthy Lifestyles Balanced lifestyle Energy Balance • If • Calorific input = energy expenditure • Calorific input< than energy expenditure • Calorific input > energy expenditure Weight loss Weight gain Weight remains constant.

    44. Healthy Lifestyles Balanced lifestyle BMR • Basal Metabolism or Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)This is the rate at which the body uses energy for maintenance activities. This includes the maintaining body temperature, the activity of the lungs, heart, kidneys and other organs.

    45. Calculating BMR • Basic estimation Basal Energy Needs • Men = 1 calorie x kg of body weight x hourWomen = 0.9 calorie / kg of bodyweight / hourFor example: A man weighing 84kg would calculate his BMR as • 1 x kg x 24hrs = 2016 basal caloric needs • A more accurate guide factored in height and age; • The Harris-Benedict Equation; For Men: • BMR = 66 + (13.7 x wt in kg) + (5 x ht in cm) - (6.8 x age in yr). For Women: • BMR = 655 + (9.6 x wt in kg) + (1.8 x ht in cm) - (4.7 x age in yr).

    46. Healthy Lifestyles Balanced lifestyle Factors Affecting BMR

    47. Healthy Lifestyles Effects of Aging Early age participation up to Physical maturation • Emphasis on fun • Aim being to create a physical activity a “life time habit” • Avoidance of repetitive stress training. • Gradual introduction of correct technique

    48. Healthy Lifestyles Effects of Aging The Ageing Process • An optimum age for sport! • Differs depending upon a variety of factors • Sporting history • Main fitness components required, (e.g. male vs female gymnastics) • Lifestyle • Inactivity = loss of fitness…….. Ageing often leads to greater inactivity!!!

    49. Healthy Lifestyles Effects of Aging The effects of aging on the fitness components; The Muscular system • Degeneration of the nerves supplying the muscles. • Collagen fibres are laid down between the muscle fibres = loss of elasticity. • Main effect seems to be on type IIa & IIb fibres with little degenerative effect on type I fibres • Cardiovascular and Cardio respiratoryEndurance. (Lung Functioning)

    50. The organisational levels of muscle