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Chapter 12. The Old South and Slavery 1830- 1860. Essential Questions. How did northerners’ image of the Old South differ from the way in which southerners saw themselves? What major social divisions segmented the white South? How did slavery affect social relations in the white South?

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The Old South and Slavery 1830- 1860


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    1. Chapter 12 The Old South and Slavery1830- 1860

    2. Essential Questions • How did northerners’ image of the Old South differ from the way in which southerners saw themselves? • What major social divisions segmented the white South? • How did slavery affect social relations in the white South? • What conditions in the Old South made it possible for a distinctive culture to develop among the slaves, and what were the predominant features of that culture?

    3. King Cotton • 1790 South’s economy stagnant- tobacco not prosperous • By 1850 South was the “Cotton Kingdom” from South Carolina to Texas • “No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is king.” - Senator James Henry Hammond South Carolina

    4. A History of Slavery • 1619 • First blacks arrive at Jamestown, NOT slaves • 1640s-1650s • View of using black “free” workers instead of indentured servants seen as an advantage • tobacco • 1660s • Word “Slave” appears • 1676 • VA, MD, NC, SC legalize slavery • New “black codes” • 1739 • Stono Rebellion in SC • = harsh new slave laws • 1776-1789 • Blacks participate in revolution • Not included in Declaration or Constitution • 3/5th compromise • 1790s • Haitian Revolt • Toussaint L’Ouverture • 60,000 dead, republic of free slaves • 1800s • Nature of slavery changes • Age of Jackson • Rise of Abolitionism • William Lloyd Garrison • Quakers • Sarah and Angelica Grimke • Sojourner Truth • Frederick Douglas • 1900

    5. Lure of Cotton • South had • Warm climate, wet springs/summers, dry autumns • Advantages • Didn’t require expensive irrigation or costly machinery (unlike sugar) • Profitable on any scale • Compatible with production of corn • Slavery • Gave an advantage • Doubled 1810-1830

    6. Diverges • North • urbanizing • South • Rural • Banks existed only to finance plantations • Lack of industries • Southern factories small • Slavery • Limited investment in Industry • South profitable, no reason to change • Rejection of compulsory education • High illiteracy • Middle class had “no need” • Upper South • Tobacco, vegetable, hemp, wheat • Lower South • Sugar, Cotton cash crops • United • Many settlers of lower south from upper south • All white southerners benefitted from 3/5ths clause • All stung by abolitionist criticism of slavery • Economic ties

    7. Social Groups • 4 main groups • Planters • + 20 slaves • Plantation society • “little nation itself” • Plantation mistresses • High degree of division of labor • Most wealth in slaves • Psychological strains • Slave mistresses • Mulatto children • Slaveholders (small) • -5 slaves • Not all farmers • Conflicting loyalties + ambitions • Younger than planters • Yeoman • Family farmers, livestock • Non-slaveholders • Largest group of white southern males • Subsistence farmers • Reason for lack of industry in south • Piedmont region • “poor white trash” • Pine barrens • Non-slaveholders • Squatted on land • Self-reliant, independent • choice

    8. North Carolina Yeomen

    9. Conflict • Planters • Whigs • Needed credit • Urban commercial allies • Yeomen • Democrats • Economically self-sufficient • Economically dependent • Unity • Whites didn’t work for whites • Lived in different geographic areas • Slavery • Decreasing slave-holding population • “Impending Crisis of the South” 1857 • Civil War: • Wanted to own slaves • Racism • No one knew where slaves would go • Pro-Slavery • Compared to Athenian slavery • “wage slavery” in North • Bible- St. Paul • Natural submission • Church supported slavery • racism

    10. Violence in Old South • Dirty fighting • Eye gouging • Ear biting • Murder rate 10X that in North • Code of Honor/dueling • Conception of “good society” diverged more from northern egalitarian and individualistic idea • Southern pride • Especially in front of slaves • Sensitivity to reputation • How gentlemen dealt without results • Law was cowardly, shameful • Only “gentlemen” dueled • Southern Evangelicals and White values • Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians • Against dueling • Reached out to women, slaves, poor • Soon absorbed gentry values and vice versa • Ex. Stonewall Jackson

    11. The “Peculiar Institution” • An institution unique to southern society • North depended on it too • Cotton helped finance industrial development, internal improvements • Cotton carried to New York, Europe • Northern bankers financed plantations, insured slave property • Northern factories manufactured cotton into cloth • Slavery concentrated in areas with most fertile soil and easiest access to national and international markets • 2nd middle passage • 1808 international slave trade abolished • Internal trade developed • “White Gold” • Manufactured in Mass, Great Britain, France, Russia • Most important US export by 1803 • Eve of civil war represented over HALF of total value of US exports • 1860: economic investment in slaves exceeded value of nation’s factories, railroads, and banks COMBINED

    12. Life under Slavery • Oppressive institution • Appropriated the life and labor of one race for the material benefit of another • Plantation System • Significant changes between 1780 and 1830 • Paternalist ethos • Average Slave: • 1700: male, 20s, African, no real family life • 1830: male or female, spoke English, born in US, family life • Work and Discipline of Plantation Slaves • Typical to work on large farm, plantation • Routine • Slave drivers, overseers • Social hierarchy of slaves • House vs field slaves • Slave Family • Planters encouraged weddings for procreation • Buying/selling disrupted family • Tight-family bonds, kinship

    13. Life under Slavery • Longevity, Diet, Health • Lived longer and reproduced faster in US • Why? • Gender ratio equalized • Plenty of food • Great immunities • Slaves off Plantations • Greatest opportunities • Laborers, extractive industries • Shortage of labor in nonagricultural sectors • Lumbering, stevedores, black engineers, iron workers • Tolerable working conditions • Free Blacks • More likely to live in cities • 1/3 in Upper South • ½ in Lower South • Why? • Specialized economies • Carpenters, coopers, barbers, traders • Fraternal orders • churches • Rate of free blacks slowed after 1810 • Nat Turner Rebellion 1831 • Exceptions • New Orleans, Natchez • Contradictions • Mixed blacks

    14. Life under Slavery • Slave Resistance • Lots of talk, little action • Nat Turner 1831 • Only main significant rebellion • Why lack of rebellion? • Formidable white presence in south • Feared risking family ties • Escape to North • Fugitive slaves • Underground railroad • Reality • Escape not reality • “Non-violent resistance” • Poisoning • Leaving tools out • Not working hard • Amistad • 1839 • 53 slaves that took control of a slave ship • Forced navigator to steer it to Africa • Opposition • President Van Buren wants to return it to Africa • Abolitionists want Supreme Court • Decision • John Quincy Adams defense • Captives released to Africa • Consequences • Creole 1841 • British gave refuge

    15. Emergence of African-American Culture • Language • Pidgin • No native speakers • Learned on slave ships • Contained African words • No genders, no instead of not • Gullah • Religion • Early slaves mainly practiced Native African religions or Islam • Very naturalistic/spiritual • Accepted Christianity • Water- baptism sacrament • Like revivalists • Cane Ridge, KY • Highlighted contradictions • Protestant missionaries • conversion = obedience • Music and Dance • Culture extremely expressive • Religious services • Singing • Dancing • spirituals • Rhythm clapping • Patting juba • Instruments • banjo

    16. Questions • Given that by 1860 the economic investment represented by the slave population exceeded the value of the nation’s factories, railroads, and banks combined, explain how important slavery was to the national economy and the emergence of the United States as a great power. • Why did many white southerners support slavery even when they did not actually own any slaves? • What forms of slave resistance were practiced in the American South?

    17. Slavery Jigsaw Activity • 1st questions: • What was the most interesting thing you discovered about this subject's life? • What was their overall experience like? • Did they discuss daily life or family life? • Does their narrative reinforce or challenge your conceptions of slavery?

    18. Jigsaw Activity • 2nd Questions • What aspects of slavery were shared in common by these men and women? • What was working life like for them? • What major differences do you see? • Is there an overall commonality to these narratives in the description of their experiences?