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Why is cost oriented pricing important. Consumer Access to Services Efficient Network Access for Competitors and Service Providers Sustainable Market Expansion Efficient Allocation of Economic Resources. What is included in economic cost?. Opportunity Cost Concept

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why is cost oriented pricing important
Why is cost oriented pricing important
  • Consumer Access to Services
  • Efficient Network Access for Competitors and Service Providers
  • Sustainable Market Expansion
  • Efficient Allocation of Economic Resources
what is included in economic cost
What is included in economic cost?
  • Opportunity Cost Concept
  • Payments/Obligations to Attract All Necessary Resources
    • People – Labour, Management and Technical Skills
    • Facilities and Technologies
    • Investment Capital
    • Profit – Cost of Attracting Equity Capital
professional approaches to cost analysis
Professional approaches to cost analysis
  • Accounting – Actual Revenues & Expenditures; Financial Statements
  • Engineering – Efficient Network Design
  • Economics – Efficient Allocation of Economic Resources
  • They Often Disagree over Cost Concepts, Data Sources and Study Methods
economic reference point competitive market theory
Economic reference point: Competitive Market Theory
  • Many Competitors – Supply & Demand Determine Market Prices
  • Competitors Must Reduce Costs to the Market Price to Prosper
  • All Competitors Can Not Set Prices Based on Their Costs
  • Market Prices Reflect the Costs of the Most Efficient Competitor
the problem of monopoly power
The problem of monopoly power
  • Prices Remain Above Cost – Sometimes by Large Margins
  • Competition is Not Effective in Reducing Prices or Costs
  • Can Price Regulation Help?
  • Why Not Regulate Prices on the Basis of Costs?
u s experience public utility regulation
U.S. experience: Public Utility Regulation
  • Prices Set on Actual Accounting Cost, including Reasonable Profits
  • Achieved Significant Coverage of Population
  • Potential Competition Mostly Resisted and Restricted
  • Created a Cost-plus Incentive to Inefficiency
  • Cost-based Pricing Became Price-based Costing
  • The Cost of Costing Became Very High: Continuing Disputes
  • Created New Markets for Lawyers, Economists, Accountants, Engineers
experience with network interconnection costing
Experience with network interconnection costing
  • U.S.: Pre and Post FCC “TELRIC”
  • Europe and Elsewhere: 57 Varieties of LRAIC
  • Modelling and Precision as an Excuse for Delay
  • Relevance to Developing Countries?
moving to simpler cost benchmarks
Moving to simpler cost benchmarks
  • Precision Misleading in Dynamic Markets with Technological Change
  • The Practical Objective: Continuous Improvement
  • Simplified Cost Models More Appropriate
  • Benchmark Comparisons Can be Effective
  • Standard Costs Can Be Reference Points
benchmarking prices as well as costs
Benchmarking prices as well as costs
  • The Goal is Efficient Prices
  • Benchmark Prices, Costs and Margins
  • Linking Common Service Elements: Competitive and Monopoly
  • Published International Comparisons: “Naming & Shaming”
  • Specifying Indicator Measures Requiring Regulatory Intervention