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the rumen effects of changing diet throughout the season
The Rumen & effects of changing diet throughout the season

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_yK-JrLCSUM&feature=player_embedded

slide3
RumanMicrobe The large microbe is a type of protist. The creature that looks like a tadpole attached to the side of the protist is a fungal spore. The smaller, rod-shaped beasts lining the underside of the protist are bacteria.
let s do a little big bang physics
Let’s do a little Big Bang Physics
  • ∆ T core = + Rd +Cd+Cv–Ev+ Hp = 0
  • ∆ T core = Body core Temperature
  • Rd = Radiation (when 2 surfaces of different temperatures)
  • Cd = Conduction (opposite of insulation)
  • Cv = Convection (special case of conduction, fluid or wind over a surface)
  • Ev = Evaporation (heat loss only, cooling when water evaporates off)
  • ...............humidity can affect
  • Hp = Heat Production (A chemical process)
  • The cost to maintain 0-zero is the cost of production
insulation 3 layers
Insulation (3 layers)
  • Itotal = T + Ex + A
  • I = Insulation
  • T = Tissue (skin, fat, blood flow/vasodilation & vasoconstriction)
  • Ex = External (Hair, Fleece, Feathers, Fur)
  • Highly variable….season, weather
  • A = Air (Air between hair, fleece, feather, fur)
  • Rough versus smooth makes a difference (Brahman vs Scotch Highland)
  • Rain can remove rapidly
did you know
Did you know?
  • That sweat dripping off your hat or elbows doesn’t help much
  • It is the evaporation ( of sweat that cools you down (convection)
panting good panters move a lot of air without much energy
PantingGood panters move a lot of air without much energy
  • Good Panters
  • Dog =Short rapid
  • Chicken = Flutter
  • Not so good panters
  • Cattle lose 3 times more heat by sweating than lungs
  • Sheep “ 1/8 “ “ “ “ “ “ “
how ruminants use energy
How ruminants use energy
  • Viserca organs-
  • Liver, GI tract, Heart, Kidney comprise 6% of BW
  • But use 50% of energy
  • Muscle41% of BW but only 23% of energy
effect of environment on energy requirements
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

Lower

Critical

Temperature

Upper

Critical

Temperature

THERMONEUTRAL ZONE

Cold stress

Heat Stress

Optimum

for

Performance

and

Health

High

Low

EFFECTIVE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

did you know1
Did you know?
  • How do young lambs and calve survive the cold?
  • 1. Shelter (out of the wind, south-east/southern exposure)
  • 2. They have brown fat (1-3 weeks) that makes more energy (heat) than shivering
  • does not apply to pigs and chickens
  • A hot ration is cool (due to Heat Increment….heat of fermentation)
effective temperature
Effective Temperature

Temperature

Wind Speed -10 0 10 20 30

Calm -10 0 10 20 30

5 -16 -6 3 13 23

15 -25 -15 -5 4 14

30 -46 -36 -26 -16 -6

*Maintenance Requirements increase .7% for each degree

of cold stress.

environmental effects on feed intake
Environmental Effects on Feed Intake

Dry, minimum

mud

Cool night

Rain

Storm

Deep mud

Hot night

digestion of forage by bacteria
Digestion of Forage by Bacteria

Digestible Cellulose and Hemicellulose

T=0 hrs

Digestible Material is Gone

Fungal invasion

T=6 hrs

Undigested Material: Mostly Lignin and Cellulose

T=20 hrs

Source: Akin, et al. 1993

effects of ambient temperature on digestibility in ruminants
Effects of ambient temperature on digestibility in ruminants
  • Average decrease in digestibility per ˚C decrease is equal to .18% [NRC, 1981]
  • Occurs in both ruminant and nonruminant animal species

Slide from Gordon Carsten

what is going on here
What is going on here?
  • Intake increases as it gets colder
  • Thyroxine levels increase which increases motility and constricts rumen areas
  • Rate of passage and digestibility
  • Intake decreases at it get hotter
  • Thyroxine levels decrease and decreases gut motility & feed in gut more time
  • Rate of passage and digestibility
3 year ohio study 28 grazing cells
3-year Ohio Study (28 grazing cells)

http://ohioline.osu.edu/sc162/sc162_3.html

slide30
The effect of temperature on the cell wall content (CWC) of grasses of the same maturity (adapted from Van Soest, 1981).
  • High ambient temperatures bring about rapid rate of maturity of forages
  • and a rise in cell wall content (CWC)
slide31
High ambient temperatures bring about rapid rate of maturity of forages and a rise in cell wall content (CWC) and a decrease digestibility of the cell wall (DCW)
light intensity
Light Intensity
  • High light intensity increases the content of water-soluble carbohydrates
  • whereas, high temperature decreases water-soluble carbohydrates
  • When there is heavy cloud cover, such as occurs in the United States during
  • summer or in tropical areas during the rainy season, both temperature and light
  • contribute to high Cell Wall Content, which results in lower Digestibility and lowered
  • intake by grazing ruminants
slide33
Matching Animal Needs to Pasture Quality

Energy

85

Cool season grasses

80

75

70

1200 lb cow* nursing calf or

65

500 lb steer gaining 2.5 lb/d

60

Avg. lactating cow

55

50

Dry, pregnant cows

45

40

Veg.

Late Veg.

Boot/bud

E. bloom

Full bloom

Hard seed

* Superior milking cow

slide34
Matching Animal Needs to Pasture Quality

Crude Protein

25

Cool season grasses

20

15

1000 lb cow* nursing calf or

500 lb steer gaining 2.5 lb/d

10

Dry, pregnant cows

5

0

Veg.

Late Veg.

Boot/bud

E. bloom

Full bloom

Hard seed

* Superior milking cow

grain supplementation to steers grazing fescue kentucky research kentu
Lbs. Of Corn ADG Gain Increase F/G

0 1.32 --- ---

1.4 1.75 .43 3.25

2.8 1.75 .43 6.50

4.2 2.00 .68 6.20

General comments of adding grain to forage-based diets

In rapidly growing forages, more than 20% of nitrogen in form of NPN

Under these circumstances, limited grain could increase nitrogen utilization

Above .25% BW, expect reduced efficiency

(ie. < 1.5 lb. grain on 600 lb. cattle)

Horn and McCollum (1987) have suggested that an energy supplement level that would

minimally affect forage intake would be 0.7% of animal body weight. However, level of grain supplementation can vary with forage quality

Otimum .2-.5% of body weight?

Grain supplementation to steers grazing fescueKentucky ResearchKentu
grain versus digestible fiber supplementation
Kentucky study:

TreatmentCorn/SBM Soyhulls

Initial weight 648 629

Supp. Intake/Day 7 7

ADG 1.4 1.8

Studies with readily degradable fiber sources as energy supplements for grazing and

forage-fed ruminants have yielded different responses than research with grains.

Soybean hulls result in only a small decrease in forage intake.

Optimum Rate? 4 pounds?

http://beef.osu.edu/library/soyhull.html

Grain versus Digestible Fiber Supplementation
slide38
Since bacteria provide 55% to 80% of the animal’s protein, forages result in less microbial protein per lb. of dry matter consumed than grain diets.
slide39
Without supplementation, a cow can consume 18 pounds of dry matter from a low-quality forage source.

18 Forage intake without supplementation

x 1.25 Increase in forage intake with adequate protein

22.5 Total forage intake with supplementation

0.40 TDN content of the forage

x 1.15 Increase in digestibility with adequate protein 0.46 TDN content of forage with supplementation

protein supplementation
Protein Supplementation
  • Limited amounts (approximately 1-2 lbs) of high protein supplements (> 30% CP) can be utilized
  • with low-quality forages. Protein supplementation may increase digestibility and increase forage
  • intake.
  • Total pasture crude protein levels may become deficient for stocker cattle my mid-July. Stocker cattle may able to meet their crude protein requirement till mid-August if they are allowed to selectively graze high quality plants.
  • Therefore, cattle grazing late summer pasture may benefit from protein supplementation.
  • Supplement containing high levels of protein (>30%) can be fed at a rate of 0.8-1 lb per day or 2.5 lbs fed 3 times per week. If protein supplements contain nonprotein nitrogen, should be fed daily.
metabolizable protein
Metabolizable Protein

bypass

CP

UIP

energy (TDN)

MP

DIP (ammonia)

MCP

frequency of feeding
Frequency of feeding
  • When feeding protein supplement can feed 3 times a week with little effect on performance
  • Grains and digestible fibers – every day
time of feeding
Time of feeding
  • The time of day will effect affect the amount of forage that the cattle will consume
  • Cattle have intensive grazing peaks at dawn and dusk, with most grazing occurring in daylight hours
  • Feeding supplements in the middle of the day may be less disruptive on normal grazing activity and will cause cattle to eat more forage than if supplements are fed early in the morning
when ruminants get cold
When ruminants get cold
  • Energy requirement goes up
  • Protein Requirements essentially say the same
evaluating manure
Evaluating Manure
  • Great Forage - Between pancake batter and pumpkin pie filling
  • Low Quality Forage -  Wedding cake (dry and stacked in layers)
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