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Making Infrastructure Accessible and Principles of Universal Design. MENA: Including Persons with Disabilities in Development: Opportunities & Accessibility June 17, 2009. Charlotte McClain- Nhlapo Karen Peffley Disability & Development, HDNSP. Why the WB should address accessibility.

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Making infrastructure accessible and principles of universal design
Making Infrastructure Accessible and Principles of Universal Design

MENA: Including Persons with Disabilities in Development:

Opportunities & Accessibility

June 17, 2009

Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo

Karen Peffley

Disability & Development, HDNSP

Why the wb should address accessibility
Why the WB should address accessibility Design

  • Changing international landscape

    • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

  • Convening power

    • Response to Financial crisis as an opportunity

  • Information available and cost effective

  • Liabilities for not building accessibly

Ibrd ida lag behind usaid and ifc on promoting accessibility
IBRD/IDA Lag Behind USAID and IFC on Promoting Accessibility Design

Since June 2005, USAID enforces a policy directive on accessible construction and reconstruction

IFC performance standards require considering the needs of vulnerable people, including individuals with disabilities

Bi-lateral donors (GTZ, DFID, AusAID) have introduced policies to include disability in their programs

EU Directive for Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation (2000)

Accessibility Design

In a general sense, accessibility is a feature which allows an environment, object or instrument to be used safely and independently.

For technical use, it is a stringent set of standards that have been mandated nationally or internationally for the construction of the built environment for the use by persons with disabilities.

Enabling environment
Enabling Environment Design

  • The objective of accessible infrastructure is part of creating an enabling environment.

  • An enabling environment is one in which ALL can participate, including people with disabilities.

  • The components are:

    • Physical

    • Social/attitudinal

    • Economic

    • Institutional

    • Technological

Physical Design

  • Barriers include environmental barriers, especially those that exist in the built (human-made) infrastructure.

    • For example, obvious barriers include stairs that create barriers to wheelchair users.

    • Less obvious barriers include the lack of tactile or high colour-contrast surfaces which assists people with navigation of streets and buildings.

Accessible latrine Design

Entrance on grade allows access by all.

Inaccessible latrine

Step at entry prevents use by wheelchair users

Physical cont
Physical, cont. Design

Addressing barriers in the physical environment may be among the easiest barriers to resolve, and often a precursor to achieving parity for people with disabilities in other areas.

What is universal design
What is Universal Design? Design

“The design of products and environments, programs and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without need for adaptation or specialized design.” (CRPD, Article 2)

Concept, approach, goal

Benefits entire population

Participatory and Local specific

Not an international/national standards

Principles of universal design
Principles of DesignUniversal Design

1. Equitable Use

2. Flexibility in Use

3. Simple and Intuitive Use

4. Perceptible Information

5. Tolerance for Error

6. Low Physical Effort

7. Size and Space for Approach and Use

Mainstreaming ud in bank operations
Mainstreaming UD in Bank operations Design

  • Achievable with small, inexpensive changes that:

    • Would not require major changes in procurement practices

    • Would not add significantly to costs

    • Work with governments to assess their own codes/guidelines policy, legal framework and compliance with regards to UD and accessibility

The crpd
The CRPD Design

The principle of accessibility is based on the principle of non-discrimination and the full participation of people with disabilities in all aspects of life.

The CRPD emphasizes that limited access or lack of accessibility in various ways often results in human rights violations.

Article 9 stipulates States must implement programs of action to make physical, social and technological environments more equitable and accessible.

Articles 21 and 24 further address accessibility in information and education.

Opportunities Design

World Bank lending for infrastructure-related programs and projects rose toUS$11.7 billion dollars during fiscal year 2008.

Further increases anticipated in public spending by governments on infrastructure in response to the fiscal crisis anticipated.

Consistent with the Sustainable Infrastructure Action Plan, 2007- 2011.

Improving access in bank financed operations
Improving Access in Bank Financed Operations Design

Transport Sector issued guidelines for inclusive transportation

HDNSP and SDV collaborated on a Social Analysis and Disability guidance note

Publication Design for All: Implication for Bank Operations

Forthcoming publication/training on Accessible BRT in LCR

FURL: DisabilityToolkit

Action plan on accessibility in bank operations
Action Plan on Accessibility in Bank Operations Design

HDN, SDN, LEG and OPCS (with input from the regions) produced an Action Plan to Introduce Universal Design in Bank-Financed Projects

Accessibility is primarily a project design and technical specifications matter, and indirectly a procurement one

By implementing UD, the Bank would be proactively aligning itself with the tenets of the CRPD and other development agencies.

Steps to achieve enabling environments include
Steps to Designachieve enabling environments include:

  • Consider accessibility early in process

  • Involve disabled persons in the design and review of projects and programs

  • Address all aspects of environments

    • Physical

    • Social/attitudinal

    • Economic

    • Institutional

    • Technological

  • Educate policy makers and designers

  • Use Universal Design as a guiding principle