PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION TRENDS OF THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COASTAL ENVIRONMENT. Dr.Eng. S. Nicolaev et al. National Institute for Marine Research & Development “Grigore Antipa”, Mamaia 300, RO-900581, Constanta 3, Romania, E-mail: <[email protected]>.
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Indicators of coastal zone
Em – medium errosion
Es – week errosion
ED – dynamic equilibrium
As – week accretion
Am – medium accretion
shore 0.10 – 25.96 µg/l
maximum and minimummonthly mean Aug
(increasing trend of Pb concentration in ecosystem components along entire Romanian coast)
Cu 16.26 µg/l57.96 µg/g
Ca 1.98 µg/l 2.26 µg/g
Pb 14.91 µg/l76.86 µg/g
Ni 2.90 µg/l49.11 µg/g
Cr 5.58 µg/l19.16 µg/g
Cu 4.60 µg/g
Cd 0.29 µg/g
Ni 4.55 µg/g
58.5 – 3,535.4 µg/l seawater (95.6 % of samples > 100 µg/l)
10.5 – 21,599 µg/g sediment (88.3 % of samples > 100 µg/l)
1 µg/l in sea water
1 µg/g in dry sediment
Indicators of eutrophication
22% Dinoflagellates +
freshwater + freshwater- brackishwater42%
4 > 10 million cells/l (2 in 2004)
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (45 mill. cells/l)
Microcystis orae (200 mill. cells/l)
Cyclotella caspia (19 mill. cells/l)
maximum density 117.225 ind./m3
biomass 2,378.34 mg/m3 (Mamaia / Jun)
e.g. / Enteromorpha13.22 g fresh weight/m2
19 macrophytes (9%)
45 invertebrates (22%)
141 fish (67%)
4 mammals (2%)
total species about2,926
endangered and vulnerable
species 29 (same 2004)
habitat diversity classifiedin (cf. EU Directives)
4 types / water column
8 types / substratum
586,188 ha wetlands
(6,188 ha in Constanta county)
pressure:14 exotic species
8 commercial species
(2 mollusks + 6 fish)
11 anthropic activities
impact:no. endangered species /
no. total species 29/2,926
no. dissapeared species /
no. total species 13/2,926
single acclimated species:
no. protected species /
no. total species12/2,926
no. protected areas /
total length of coastline5/254
total surface of protected areas12,606.98 ha:
11,335 ha of scientific
1,226.98 ha of scientific and
35 ha zoology
8 ha botany and zoology
- biggest protected area: Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve(with own Management plan)
Vama Veche - 2 Mai Marine Reserve under custody of NIMRD (Functioning statute and Management plan in progress)BIODIVERSITY AND HABITATS
sprat 60,000 t
(>2003-2004 / 45,000 t)
(17 for industrial fishing)
STATE OF FISH STOCKSIndicators for living resources
- stationary / 1,840 trammel nets
7,200 turbot gill nets
300 mullet gill nets
30 trap nets
16 beach seines
230 shad gill nets
- active / 8 operational coastal trawlers
1,940 t (510 + 1,430 t)
20.3% > 2003, 5.9% > 2004
I identical 2003-2004
State and evolution trends of Romanian Black Sea coastal environment continued to be monitored in 2005 from physical, chemical and biological point of view compared with reference periods dating back in early ۥ60ies or more recent years depending on parametres.
Coastal processes during the geomorphological cycle 2004-2005 have been dominated by dynamic equilibrium (41%) and erosion (40%) compared to accretion (19%).
Sea level indicated very high values compared to reference period 1933-2004, in correlation with precipitations, floods and increased Danube flow (discharge)
Considerable decrease of salinity in May, July and September much below usual limits relates as well to increase of Danube flow.
Nutrient (N, P, Si) and chlorophyll a concentrations, major indicators of eutrophication, increased compared to last years, occasionally exceeding those between 1996-2004, due to above mentioned reason.
Some indicators of contamination, such as heavy metals, total hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs exceeded occasionaly previously encountered reference concentrations.CONCLUSIONS
Bioaccumulation of contaminants in edible bivalve mollusks did not affect their state of health.
Slight improvement of state of marine ecosystem signaled end ۥ90ies, beginning 2000, continued to be proved by:
decrease of phytoplankton densities / biomasses and related blooms,
comparable densities / biomasses of Centropages ponticus with those prior to eutrophication,
reinstallment of Cystoseira barbata belts off Vama Veche,
increase of macrozoobenthic specific diversity (up to 60 species compared to fewer number in ۥ90ies till 2004).
Concentrations of enterobacteria (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci) exceeded between 12 to
28% national and EC previsions, due tocertain local disrespect of hygienic-sanitary norms and specific hydro-meteorological conditions.
Revised Red List of macrophytes, invertebrates, fish and mammals totalized same 209 species as in 2004.
Biodiversity and habitats continued to be characterized by specific decision indicators (state, pressure, impact, response).
State of living resources / fish stocks has been surveyed taking into consideration evolution of state, pressure and impact indicators.
New versus historical reference data concerning present state and evolution trends of the Romanian coastal environment do constitute contributions for a joint „Report on the state of the Black Sea”.CONCLUSIONS (cont’d)