Chapter 19. The Circulatory System I Blood. Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system includes: Blood The Heart Blood Vessels Large and small arteries and arterioles Large and small veins and venules Capillaries. Blood.
The Circulatory System I
* = packed cell volume
X 2 μm thick.
-From infancy on, all rbc’s are produced in red bone marrow. They are produced from pluripotent stem cells (PPSC).
-Spherical cells containing a nucleus and other organelles. The nucleus of each cell type varies considerably in leukocytes and is quite conspicuous, thus helps in identifying each cell type.
-stimulated by two cytokines: (interleukin and colony stimulating factor [CSF]).
-All wbc’s are produced from PPSC by a process called leucopoiesis. WBC’s are produced in red bone marrow and may remain there until needed in the body or they may migrate to other organs for further differentiation.
- gentian violet stains nuclei violet
- eosin stains proteins pink
neutrophils: 60 – 70% of total count
lymphocytes: 20 – 25 %
monocytes: 3 – 8 %
eosinophils: 2 – 4 %
basophils: 0.5 – 1 %
Nucleus looks like sausage links – multilobed
- about 60% of wbcs: 3,000 to 7,000/mm3
-Life span: 6 hrs – few days
- phagocytize bacteria
holes until clot can form.
enzymes and platelet growth
and stop bleeding (hemostasis).
Picture is of a megakaryocyte from which
platelets are produced.