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Chapter 19. The Circulatory System I Blood. Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system includes: Blood The Heart Blood Vessels Large and small arteries and arterioles Large and small veins and venules Capillaries. Blood.

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chapter 19

Chapter 19

The Circulatory System I

Blood

cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • The cardiovascular system includes:
      • Blood
      • The Heart
      • Blood Vessels
        • Large and small arteries and arterioles
        • Large and small veins and venules
        • Capillaries
blood
Blood
  • A liquid connective tissue made up of plasma and formed elements.
  • BLOOD COMPOSITION:
  • Serum: the liquid portion of blood after it has clotted ( fibrinogen has clotted).
  • Plasma: liquid portion of blood
      • Water – 92% by weight
      • Proteins – 6-9 gm/dl; most abundant plasma solute
  • Formed elements (rbc, wbc and platelets)
blood proteins
Blood Proteins
  • Albumin is the major contributor to plasma viscosity and osmolarity. Albumin- smallest and most abundant protein; serves to transport plasma solutes and buffer the pH of blood plasma.
  • Fibrinogen- soluble precursor of fibrin, a sticky protein that forms framework for clotting.
  • Globulins-3 classes: alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) (smallest to largest) in molecular weight.
formed elements
Formed Elements
  • Red blood cells (rbc) = erythrocytes ~45-50% pcv*
  • White blood cells (wbc) = leukocytes ~ < 1% pcv*
    • Granulocytes- neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
    • Agranulocytes- lymphocytes and monocytes
    • Thrombocytes = platelets (part of buffy coat)

* = packed cell volume

erythrocytes rbc s
Erythrocytes (RBC’s)
  • 4.2 – 6.2 million per mm3
  • Cell Structure: biconcave disc 7.5 μm diameter,

X 2 μm thick.

  • anucleated cells (no nucleus or other cellular organelles)
  • Production:erythropoiesis is stimulated by erythropoietin, a hormone from kidneys.

-From infancy on, all rbc’s are produced in red bone marrow. They are produced from pluripotent stem cells (PPSC).

  • Contain 280 million hemoglobin molecules/rbc;
  • Life span of a rbc ~ 100- 120 days
hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
  • Hemoglobin (Hgb) is a complex molecular struc-ture of four polypeptide chains: 2 α chains and 2 β chains.
  • Each α chain contains 141 amino acids; β chain contains 146 amino acids.
  • One heme group is bound to each chain and contains ferrous iron (Fe+2).
  • Oxygen binds to Fe+2. Each Hgb molecule binds four oxygen atoms. Therefore each RBC can transport about 4 x 280 million oxygen atoms
hemoglobin molecular structure
Hemoglobin molecular structure
  • Star shapes are heme groups containing Fe+2
  • Dark blue chain is β, light blue is α
blood types
Blood types
  • Most familiar blood types are ABO groups and Rh group.
  • Blood type antigens are carried on red blood cell membranes.
  • Blood types A,B,O and AB involve the ABO group
  • O is “universal donor”; AB is “universal recipient”.
  • Rh factor may be present (+) or absent (-) and immune reactions can result if not properly matched.
leukocytes wbc s
Leukocytes (WBC’s)
  • Cell Structure: 4,800 – 11,000/mm3

-Spherical cells containing a nucleus and other organelles. The nucleus of each cell type varies considerably in leukocytes and is quite conspicuous, thus helps in identifying each cell type.

  • Production:

-stimulated by two cytokines: (interleukin and colony stimulating factor [CSF]).

-All wbc’s are produced from PPSC by a process called leucopoiesis. WBC’s are produced in red bone marrow and may remain there until needed in the body or they may migrate to other organs for further differentiation.

  • Percentage ranking: NLMEB
differential leukocyte count
Differential Leukocyte Count
  • Smear a drop of blood over a slide
  • Stain the blood smear with Wright’s stain

- gentian violet stains nuclei violet

- eosin stains proteins pink

  • Count 100 leukocytes, tallying each type

neutrophils: 60 – 70% of total count

lymphocytes: 20 – 25 %

monocytes: 3 – 8 %

eosinophils: 2 – 4 %

basophils: 0.5 – 1 %

:

granulocytes
Granulocytes
  • Leukocytes that contain granules in their cytoplasm:
  • Neutrophils – most plentiful in blood (60 – 70 %)
  • Eosinophils– 1 – 4% of wbc’s
  • Basophils- least plentiful of all wbc’s ~ 0.5% wbc’s
neutrophils
Neutrophils

Nucleus looks like sausage links – multilobed

- about 60% of wbcs: 3,000 to 7,000/mm3

-Life span: 6 hrs – few days

- phagocytize bacteria

eosinophils
Eosinophils
  • Bilobed nucleus
  • Account for 1-4% of wbc
  • Red staining granules
  • Life span- 8 – 12 days
  • Kill parasitic worms, active in allergies
basophils
Basophils
  • Bilobed nucleus “U” or “S”
  • Account for < 0.5% wbc
  • Dark bluish-purple staining granules
  • Life span- hrs. - days
  • Contain histamine, and inflamatory substances
agranulocytes
Agranulocytes
  • Conspicuous granules are lacking in the cytoplasm.
  • Composed of: Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
  • Lymphocytes are most important in immune system in lymph nodes, Peyers patches, and spleen.
lymphocytes
Lymphocytes
  • Round nucleus fills most of cytoplasm
  • Account for 25-33 % of wbc’s
  • Similar size to neutrophils
  • Life span- hrs. to years
  • Two types: “B” and “T”
  • B cells mature in red bone marrow
  • T cells start in red marrow and mature in Thymus gland
monocytes
Monocytes
  • Largest wbc’s in circulation
  • Large “U: shaped or kidney

shaped nucleus

  • Account for 4-8% of wbcs
  • Life span- months
  • Active in clotting to plug

holes until clot can form.

  • Become macrophages after release from red bone marrow into circulation
  • Macrophages are major phagocytes in body
thrombocytes platelets
Thrombocytes (platelets)
  • Cellular fragments very small under microscope.
  • ~ 250,000 platelets/ mm3
  • Contain serotonin, Ca++,

enzymes and platelet growth

factor.

  • Stick together to form plugs

and stop bleeding (hemostasis).

Picture is of a megakaryocyte from which

platelets are produced.