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Urinary System. Introduction. Ammonia (NH 4 ). As proteins and nucleic acids are catabolized , nitrogenous wastes , including ammonia, are produced in all animals. NH4 is water-soluble, a strong base, and can change the pH of blood. It must be eliminated!. How is NH 4 eliminated?.

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urinary system

Urinary System


ammonia nh 4
Ammonia (NH4)
  • As proteins and nucleic acids are catabolized, nitrogenous wastes, including ammonia, are produced in all animals.
  • NH4 is water-soluble, a strong base, and can change the pH of blood.
  • It must be eliminated!

Kidneys– Produce Urine

Ureters– Transport Urine

Urinary Bladder– Stores Urine

Urethra– Transports Urine

  • Primary Functions
    • Eliminate metabolic wastes
    • Regulate blood volume
    • Regulate blood chemistry
  • Secondary Functions
    • Metabolism of Vitamin D
    • Production of renin
    • Production of EPO
  • Superior lumbar region
  • Lie behind the peritoneum
  • Right kidney sits lower than left …why?
  • ~size of a large bar of soap
exterior structures
Exterior Structures
  • Adrenal glands- endocrine organs that secrete
    • Aldosterone
    • Cortisol
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Other Hormones
Renal hilus– medial indentation that includes pathway for ureters, renal artery, renal vein, and nerves
Renal Capsule– fibrous, transparent structure on kidney surface
  • Adipose Capsule– surrounds kidney and holds it in position
  • If the amount of fatty tissue declines, the kidney’s may drop to a lower position, a condition called ptosis
  • Ureters becomes kinked and the urine backs up, exerting pressure on the kidney
internal structures
Internal Structures
  • Renal Cortex– superficial portion; urine formation
  • Renal Medulla– deep to cortex
    • Renal Columns– extensions of cortex
    • Medullary pyramids– stripes are due to collecting ducts
      • Base – points toward cortex
      • Apex/Papilla – point medially
Renal Pelvis– funnel shaped tube; continuous with ureter
    • Calyces– cup-shaped extensions of the pelvis that enclose the tips of the pyramids
Glomerulus– ball of capillaries; site of filtration
  • Peritubular Capillaries– Site of reabsorption and secretion

Formed in the renal cortex

Travels thru the collecting ducts in the renal medulla

Drips out of the renal papillae into the minor calcyes

Flows thru the major calyces

Flows thru the urethra

Flows thru the renal pelvis

Flows thru and is stored in the urinary bladder

Flows thru the ureter

Urine Flow from the Kidneys