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Stress* • Physiological response to threat, watch Angry at Heart Video(second video) What is the response you see below called? Image attributed to Stangor, 2011. Introduction to Psychology EXHAUSTION ALARM RESISTANCE Stress Occurs
General Adaptation Syndrome * • Three stage response to long-term stress. • 1. Alarm * • Body releases stress hormones, inc. cortisol • 2. Resistance * • Body adapts to threat; tries to return to normal functions; glucose & BP increase • 3. Exhaustion * • Reserves gone; immunity & organs fail Image attributed to Stangor, 2011. Introduction to Psychology
The HPA Axis – Response to StressImage attributed to Stangor, 2011. Introduction to Psychology HYPOTHALAMUS Pituitary Gland ACTH Adrenal Glands Cortisol Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Biopsychosocial Model * • Explanations in terms of interactions between biological, psychological, and social variables. • Psychoneuroimmunology * • Studies interaction between immune system, nervous system & psychological processes • Health Psychology * • Focus on how interactions of biology, behavior & social situation influence health & illness.
What causes stress? • Social Readjustment Rating Scale * • Holmes & Rahe research. • Everyday life events rated for their stress potential. • Predictive for illness (exhaustion stage of GAS) • Daily Hassles * • Minor events – argument, lost keys, test • Predictive for stress and poorer health • What causes the most stress for you?
Responses to Stress • Individual differences • Fight-Flight Response: • More common in men • Emotional and Behavioral Response to stress that increases the readiness for action. • Tend and Befriend: • More common in women • Behavioral reaction to stress that involves activities designed to create social networks that provide protection from stress.
COPING • Problem-focused coping * • Trying to change situation or problem that is causing the stress. Example? • Emotion-focused coping * • Trying to reduce the effects of stress by controlling emotions. Example ? • Individual differences in resisting stress * • Age, exercise, diet, social support, health, genes • Jaycee Dugard Interview Video
Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome * • Response to an extreme stressor, e.g. war, rape, natural disaster, life-threatening event • Symptoms include : anxiety, intrusive thoughts, emotional problems, distracted • Substance abuse & family problems common • Medical and psychological treatment needed. • Video Interview