Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler). TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES. Employees Orientation: A Procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm.
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Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES • Employees Orientation: A Procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm. At a minimum, new employees usually receive either printed or internet-based employee handbooks. These explain things like working hours, performance reviews, getting on the payroll, and vacations .
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Employees Orientation. . . • A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees: • Make them feel welcome and at ease. • Help them understand the organization in a broad sense. • Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior. • Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) NEW EMPLOYEES DEPARTMENTALORIENTATION CHECKLIST 1. Human Resources Information • Departmental Attendance Procedures and UCSD Healthcare Work Time & Attendance Policy • Job Description Review • Annual Performance Evaluation and Peer Feedback Process • Probationary Period Information • Appearance/Dress Code Requirements • Annual TB Screening • License and/or certification Renewals
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) CHECKLIST (Contd…) • Department Information • Organizational Structure-Department Core Values Orientation • Department/Unit Area Specific Policies & Procedures • Customer Service Practices • CQI Effort and Projects • Tour and Floor Plan • Equipment/Supplies • Keys issued • Radio Pager issued • Other______________ • Mail and Recharge codes
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) CHECKLIST (Contd…) • Safety Information • Departmental Safety Plan • Employee Safety/Injury Reporting Procedures • Hazard Communication • Infection Control/Sharps Disposal • Attendance at annual Safety Fair (mandatory)
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) CHECKLIST (Contd…) • Facilities Information • Organizational Structure-Department Core Values Orientation • Department/Unit Area Specific Policies & Procedures • Customer Service Practices • CQI Effort and Projects • Tour and Floor Plan • Bed • Headwall • Bathroom • Nurse Call System
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) CHECKLIST (Contd…) 5. Security Information • Code Triage Assignment • Code Blue Assignment • Code Red – Evacuation Procedure • Code 10 – Bomb Threat Procedure • Departmental Security Measures • UCSD Emergency Number 6111 or 911 • Tour and Floor Plan • Bed • Headwall • Bathroom • Nurse Call System
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) The Training Process • Training The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. • Thestrategic context of training Performance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals.
The Training & Development Process Needs analysis Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives. Instructional design Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities. Validation Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience. Implement the program Actually training the targeted employee group. Evaluation Assesses the program’s successes or failures. Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler)
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Make Learning Meaningful It is usually easier for trainees to understand and remember material that is meaningful. Therefore: • At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eyes of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning. • Use a variety of familiar examples. • Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units. • Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees. • Use as many visual aids as possible.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Make Skills Transfer Easy • Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation. • Provide adequate practice. • Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process. • Direct the trainee’s attention to important aspects of the job. For example, if you're training customer service representatives how to handle incoming calls, first explain the different types of calls they will encounter and how to recognize such calls.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Make Skills TransferEasy (Contd…) 5. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information. For example, trainees learning to become first-line supervisor often face stressful conditions, high workload, and difficult subordinates back on the job. Studies suggest you can reduce the negative impact of such events by letting trainees know they might happen.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Motivate the Learner • Here are some ways to motivate the trainee. • People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible. • Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a quick “well done”. • Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them pace themselves. • Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. In one study, pilot who had experienced pertaining accident-related events subsequently learned more from an accident-reduction training program than did those experiencing fewer such events
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Motivate the Learner… You could illustrate the need for the training by showing videos of simulated accidents. Similarly, “before the training, managers need to sit down and talk with the trainee about why they are enrolled in the class, what they are expected to learn and how they can use it on the job. • The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, so that “full day training is not as effective as half the day or three-fourths of the day”. • Negligent training A situation where an employer fails to train adequately and the employee subsequently harms a third party.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Analyzing Training Needs • Task analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs A detailed study of a job to identify the specific skills required. • Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employees).
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Training Methods • On the job Training (OJT) Training a person to learn a job while working at it. Here are some steps to help ensure OJT success. Step 1: Prepare the Learner • Put the learner at ease–relieve the tension • Explain why he or she is being taught • Create interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other jobs. • Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows. • Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible. • Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade terms.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Step 2: Present the Operation • Explain quantity and quality requirements. • Go through the job at the normal work pace. • Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made. • Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points. • Have the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow pace.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Step 3: Do a Tryout • Have the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step to you. Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times. • Run the job at the normal pace. • Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. • As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but don’t abandon him or her.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Step 4: Follow up • Designate to whom the learner should go for help. • Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity standards. • Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior. • Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity standards.
Apprenticeship Training A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Job Instructions Training (JIT) Listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step - by – step training for employees. Programmed Learning A systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, & giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answer. Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler)
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Literacy Training Techniques • Audiovisual – Based Training Techniques like films, Power Points, videoconferencing, audiotapes, & videotapes can be very effective & are widely used. • Simulated Training Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in airplane pilot training. So training costs and hazards can be reduced.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) Sets of computerized tools & displays that automate training, documentation, & phone support, integrate this automation into applications, & provide support that’s faster; cheaper; and more effective than traditional methods. • Job Aid Job aid Is a set of instructions diagrams, or similar methods available at the job site to guide the worker • Diversity Training With an increasingly diverse workforce, more firms are implementing diversity training programs.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) • Training Employees to Please customers • Teamwork training • Lifelong Learning Providing continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced decision-making techniques throughout the employees’ career
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Managerial Development and Training • Management Development Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. • Succession Planning A processes through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filed.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Managerial On – the – Job Training • Job Rotation A management training technique that involves moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. • Action learning A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Off – The Job Management T & D Techniques • Case study method A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve. • Management game A development technique in which teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regards realistic but simulated situations. • Role playing A training technique in which trainees act out parts in a realistic management situation.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Off – The Job Management T & D Techniques (Contd…) • Behavior modeling A training technique in which trainers are first shown good management techniques in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated situation and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor. • In-house development centre A company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills.
Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques (cont’d) Executive coaches An outside consultant who questions the executive’s boss, peers, subordinates, and (sometimes) family in order to identify the executive’s strengths and weaknesses. Counsels the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses. Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler)
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Managing Strategic Organizational Renewal • Strategic Change A change in a company’s strategy, mission, and vision. • Cultural Change A change in a company’s shared values and aims. • Structural Change The reorganizing or redesigning of an organization’s departmentalization, coordination, span of control, reporting relationships, or decision-making process. • Technological change Modifications to the work methods an organization uses to accomplish its tasks.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Overcoming Resistance To Change • What causes resistance? • All behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds of forces—those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change. • Lewin’s Change Process • Unfreezing: reducing the forces striving to maintain the status quo. • Moving: developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through structural changes. • Refreezing: reinforcing the changes.
Overcoming Resistance to Change… Change initiatives Political campaign: creating a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Marketing campaign: tapping into employees’ thoughts and feelings and also effectively communicating messages about the prospective program’s theme and benefits. Military campaign: Deploying executives’ scarce resources of attention and time to actually carry out the change. Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler)
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) How to Lead the Change: • A 10-step change Process • Establish a sense of urgency. Once they become aware of the need to change, most leaders start by creating a sense of urgency. • Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems. • Create a guiding-coalition partnership. • Develop a shared vision
Chapter 9 HRM (Gary Dessler) A 10-step change Process (Contd…) • Communicate the Vision. a. Keep it simple. b. Use multiple forums. c. Use repetition. d. Lead by example. • Help employees to make the change. It’s futile to communicate your vision and to have employees want to make it a reality. • Generate short-term wins. • Consolidate gains and produce more change. • Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company’s culture. • Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required.
Chapter 9 HRM (Gary Dessler) Organizational Development (OD) • A special approach to organizational change in which employees themselves formulate & implement the change that’s required. • Usually involves action research. • Applies behavioral science knowledge. • Changes the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees. • Changes the organization in a particular direction.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Characteristics Of OD • It usually involves action research, which means collecting data about a group, department, or organization and then feeding the information back to the employees so they can analyze it and develop hypotheses about what the problems might be. • It applies behavioral science knowledge to improve the organization’s effectiveness.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Characteristics Of OD (Contd…) • It changes the attitudes, values and beliefs of employees so that the employees themselves can identify and implement the technical, procedural, structural, or other changes needed to improve the company’s functioning. • It changes the organization in a particular direction—toward improved problem solving, responsiveness, quality of work, and effectiveness.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) OD Interventions or Techniques • Human Process Applications • Technostructural Interventions • HRM Applications • Strategic OD Applications
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Human Process Applications Human Process OD techniques generally aim first at improving human relation skills. • Sensitivity training A method for increasing employees’ insights into their own behavior by candid discussions in groups led by special trainers. • Team building A method for clarifying and bringing into the open intergroup misconceptions and problems so that they can be resolved.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Human Process Applications (Contd…) • Confrontation meetings A method for clarifying and bringing into the open intergroup misconceptions and problems so that they can be resolved. • Survey research A method that involves surveying employee’s attitudes and providing feedback to the work groups as a basis for problem analysis and action planning.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Technostructural Interventions OD practitioners are also increasingly involved in changing firm’s structures, methods, and job designs using an assortment of Technostructural interventions. These interventions generally focus directly on improving productivity and efficiency. In a formal structural change program, the employees collect data on the company’s existing organizational structure; they then jointly redesign and implement a new one.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) HRM Applications OD practitioners increasingly use action research to enable employees to analyze and change their firm’s personnel practices. Targets of change might include the performance appraisal and reward systems, as well as installing diversity programs.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Strategic OD Applications • Strategic interventions are organization wide OD programs aimed at achieving a fit among a firm’s strategy, structure, culture, and external environment.
Chapter 8 HRM (Gary Dessler) Strategic OD Applications (Contd…) • Integrated strategic management is one example of how to use OD to create or change a strategy. It consists of four steps: • Managers and employees analyze current strategy and organizational design. • Choose a desired strategy and organizational design. • Design a strategic change plan— “an action plan for moving the organization from its current strategy and organizational design to the desired future strategy and design. • Finally implement the strategic change plan, and measure and review the results to ensure that they are proceeding as planned.