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National Latin Exam CRASH COURSE!

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  1. National Latin ExamCRASH COURSE! Latin II

  2. NOUNS • All the declensions! • All the cases! • Nominative • Genitive • Dative • Accusative • Ablative • You know all those! • BUT • There are a couple of new uses you need to learn.

  3. The ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE • Militevulnerātō, nemo me custodiēbat. • The highlighted thing: an ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. • An Ablative Absolute is made of a noun and a participle in the ablative. • You translate it in any of the following ways: • “After the [noun] [verb respecting tense + voice of participle] • “With the [noun] [verb respecting tense + voice of participle] • “When the [noun] [verb respecting tense + voice of participle] • ALWAYS TRANSLATE THE NOUN FIRST! • So the example sentence is translated thus: • After the soldier was wounded, no one was protecting me. • With the soldier wounded, no one was protecting me. • When the soldier was wounded, no one was protecting me. • Go with whichever sounds best.

  4. Four examples • Mē ingressō, Cogidubnus mē salutavit. • After I had entered, Cogidubnus greeted me. • Sōlelucente, mercator Arabs forum transiit. • As the sun shone, the Arab merchant crossed the forum. • Regemortuō, SalviusBritanniamoccupārepotuit. • With the king dead, Salvius could take over Britain. • Oratiōnedatā, omnēsplausērunt. • After the speech was given, everyone applauded. • Why is it called “absolute”? • Latin solvō (loosen, untie, cut off) + ab: the ablative absolute is not attached or connected to the rest of the sentence. • What this means for you: if you refer to something in the rest of the sentence, then you have translated the abl. abs. wrong.

  5. Common ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE mistakes • Hīsverbīsdictīs, Cogidubnusexiit. • “After he said these words, Cogidubnus left.” • What’s wrong with this translation? • They didn’t translate the noun in the ablative absolute first! The noun is verbīs. • They didn’t respect the voice of the participle! It is a passive participle. They are words having been said. • They referred to the rest of the sentence! “He” (Cogidubnus) is not in the ablative absolute. • How would you translate this correctly? • “After these words were said, Cogidubnus left.” • “With these words having been said, Cogidubnus left.”

  6. The ablative of INSTRUMENT • Used to indicate with what, or in what way, something was done. • Examples! • Retiariusmurmillonemgladiōinterfecit. • The net-fighter killed the murmillowith a sword. • Caeciliusvoce laetādicebat. • Caecilius was speaking in a happy voice. • Servusdominumdelectatcibō. • The slave pleases the master with food.

  7. The Accusative and Ablative of Time • The accusative of time signifies duration. • Examples: • Trēsdiēsambulavī. • I walked for three days. • Multōsannōsvīxit. • He lived for many years. • The ablative of time signifies a point in time. • Examples: • Tertiōdiēadvēnī. • I arrived on the third day. • Proximōannōperiit. • He died the next year.

  8. Two Prepositionsthat take the accusative • ob • propter • These both mean something like “on account of” or “because of”, though their meanings are loose. • Examples!! • Celeritercucurrīob gravitatemdiscriminis. • I ran quickly on account of the seriousness of the crisis. • Imperatorīpropter metum parent. • They obey the emperor because of fear. • Heard of the “post hoc” fallacy? • Post hoc, propter hoc: After this, (therefore) because of this.

  9. Pronouns & Demonstratives • Know the charts and meanings of: • hic, haec, hoc • ille, illa, illud • is, ea, id • qui, quae, quod • Personal pronouns (ego, tu, nos, vos) • Reflexive pronoun (sē) • Interrogative pronouns (Quis? Quid?)

  10. VERBS • This is where it gets complicated… • You need to know SIX tenses in both ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE (twelve charts!!!) • Present • Imperfect • Future • Perfect • Pluperfect • Future Perfect • No new subjunctives, though.

  11. FUTURE Active Indicative • Translate: “will [verb]” • This tense conjugates a little differently in different conjugations. • In the 1st and 2nd conjugations: • [present stem] • + bi • + {ō, s, t, mus, tis, nt} • In the 3rd, 3io, and 4th : • [present stem] • + (i)ē • + {m, s, t, mus, tis, nt}

  12. Examples • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudābō • laudābis • laudābit • laudābimus • laudābitis • laudābunt • capiō, capere, cēpī, captus • capiam • capiēs • capiet • capiēmus • capiētis • capient

  13. Future of SUM • erō • eris • erit • erimus • eritis • erunt

  14. FUTURE PERFECT Active Indicative • Translate: “will have [verbed]” • Formation: • [perfect stem] + eri+ {ō, s, t, mus, tis, nt} • Example • laudaverō: I will have praised • laudaveris: You will have praised • laudaverit etc. • laudaverimus • laudaveritis • laudaverint • How would you do the future perfect of sum?

  15. The PASSIVE VOICE • Passive: the subject does not do the action, it receives the action. • English example • Active: “Sassenberg graded the quiz” • Passive: “The quiz was graded by Sassenberg” • There is a set of PASSIVE PERSONAL ENDINGS. They are: • r • ris • tur • mur • minī • ntur

  16. 3 Passive Tenses • Present, Imperfect, and Future form exactly the same in the Passive, you just use {r, ris, tur, mur, minī, ntur} instead of {ō, s, t, mus, tis, nt.} • So let’s conjugate!

  17. Present Passive Indicative • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudor: I am praised • laudāris: You are praised • laudātur: He/she/it is praised • laudāmur: We are praised • laudāminī: Y’all are praised • laudāntur: They are praised • Coquus ā dominōsalutātur • The cook is greeted by the master

  18. Imperfect Passive Indicative • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudābar: I was being praised (sometimes simply “was praised”) • laudābāris: You were being praised • laudābātur: etc. • laudābāmur • laudābāminī • laudābantur • Militesinspiciēbantur. • The soldiers were being inspected.

  19. Future Passive Indicative • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudābor • laudāberis • laudābitur • laudābimur • laudābiminī • laudābuntur • Crās ā Imperatorelaudābor. • Tomorrow I will be praised by the emperor.

  20. 3 More Passive Tenses • These are easy! • Perfect Passive Indicative: • [4th principal part] + [present of sum] • Pluperfect Passive Indicative: • [4th principal part] + [imperfect of sum] • Future Passive Indicative: • [4th principal part] + [future of sum]

  21. Perfect Passive Indicative • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudātus sum: I was praised or I have been praised • laudātuses: You were praised or You have been praised • laudātusest: etc. • laudātīsumus • laudātīestis • laudātīsunt • Numquamgravitervulnerātus sum • I have never been seriously injured

  22. Pluperfect Passive Indicative • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudātuseram: I had been praised • laudātuserās: You had been praised • laudātuserat: etc. • laudātīerāmus • laudātīerātis • laudātīerant • CenaiamcoctaeratubiCaeciliusadvēnit. • Dinner had already been cooked when Caecilius arrived. • Why “cocta”? The participle has to agree with the subject.

  23. Future Perfect Passive Indicative(what a mouthful) • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus • laudātuserō: I will have been praised • laudātuseris: You will have been praised • laudātuserit: etc. • laudātīerimus • laudātīeritis • laudātīerunt • Crāshostēssuperātīerunt. • (By) tomorrow the enemies will have been defeated.

  24. Infinitives • There is more than one infinitive! • You know the present active already. • laudāre: “to praise” • The present passive infinitive is formed thus: • In 1st, 2nd, and 4th conjugations, remove the final “e” and put in an “ī” instead. • In 3rd, and 3io, remove the “ere” or “īre” and put in the “ī”. • portāre portārī: “to be carried” • docēre docērī: “to be taught” • trahere trahī: “to be dragged” • capere  capī: “to be captured” • audīre audīrī: “to be heard”

  25. Infinitives part two • The perfect active infinitive looks suspiciously similar to the pluperfect subjunctive! • You form it like this: • [perfect stem] + isse • laudāvisse: “to have praised” • cēpisse: “to have captured” • The perfect passive infinitive is formed like this: • [4th principle part] + esse • laudātusesse: “to have been praised” • captusesse: “to have been captured”

  26. Future active participle • Take the 4th principal part and stick an “ūr” before the “us” to form the future participle. • laudātūrus: “going to praise, about to praise” • captūrus: “going to capture, about to capture” • There is also a future active infinitive: • laudātūrusesse: “to be about to praise” • captūrusesse: “to be about to capture”

  27. INDIRECT STATEMENTS!

  28. Indirect Statements • If your eyes glazed over and your mind started to wander in the last few slides (I don’t blame you), pay attention again for a sec because this is really important! • An INDIRECT STATEMENT is a bit like an indirect question except it doesn’t use the subjunctive. • Examples in English: • Direct statement: “I went to the forum.” • Indirect statement: “Grumio said that I went to the forum.”

  29. Indirect Statements: The Second Slide • Take this example again: • Direct statement: “I walked to the forum.” • Indirect statement: “Grumio said that I walked to the forum.” • Here’s how you do this in Latin: • Direct statement: “Ad forum ambulāvī.” • Indirect statement: “Grumiōmē ad forum ambulāredīxit.” • Grammatically, how did the direct statement change? • The main verb within the indirect statement becomes an infinitive and the subject is put in the accusative. • The indirect statement is set up by a head verb (a verb of saying, thinking, knowing, etc.)

  30. Examples • Audiōmilitēsvenīre. • I hear that the soldiers are coming. • Ancillaputatomnēseamamāre. • The slave girl thinks that everybody loves her. • Barbarīssuperātīs, Romanīnuntiavēruntsēvictorēsesse. • After the barbarians were defeated (ablative absolute!) the Romans anounced that they (the Romans, not the barbarians) were the winners.

  31. Harder Examples • Remember all those new infinitives? Indirect statements can use those too! • CredōRomanōssempervictorēsfuturōsesse. • I believe the Romans will always be winners. • Ea nescitnōslaboremdomūsnōnfēcisse. • She doesn’t know we didn’t do the homework. • Salviusmē ā Imperatorelaudarīscit. • Salvius knows that I am praised by the emperor.

  32. Impersonal verbs • Verbs where the subject is an implied “it.” • Licet – It is allowed • Placet– It pleases • These take the dative. • Examples! • Servōnōn licet ad forum īre. • It is not allowed for the slave to go to the forum. • (The slave is not allowed to go to the forum) • Tibiplacet? • Is it pleasing to you? • (Do you like it?)

  33. Correlative conjunctions • You already know some (et…et) • Here are more! • Nec…nec = Neither…nor • Aut…aut = Either…or

  34. The end • It’s over