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Edward A. Fox fox@vt fox.cs.vt CS DLRL Internet TIC

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  1. Digital Libraries: Extending and Applying Information Science and TechnologyProLISSAOctober 26-27, 2000 Edward A. Fox fox@vt.edu http://fox.cs.vt.edu CS DLRL Internet TIC Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

  2. Thanks! • Theo Bothma • Petrina Bothma • Peter Ingwersen • Irene Wormell • ProLISSA and DISSAnet staff • DANIDA

  3. Acknowledgements (Selected) • Mentors: JCR Licklider, Michael Kessler, Gerard Salton • Sponsors: Adobe, IBM, Microsoft, NLM, NSF, OCLC, SOLINET, SURA, UNESCO, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE), … • VT Faculty/Staff: Tony Atkins, Thomas Dunbar, Debra Dudley, John Eaton, Gwen Ewing, Peter Haggerty, Gary Hooper, Gail McMillan, Len Peters, James Powell, … • VT Students: Emilio Arce, Fernando Das Neves, Brian DeVane, Robert France, Marcos Goncalves, Scott Guyer, Robert Hall, Neill Kipp, Paul Mather, Tim McGonigle, Todd Miller, Constantinos Phanouriou, William Schweiker, Ohm Sornil, Hussein Suleman, Patrick Van Metre, Laura Weiss, …

  4. JCDL 2001 • First Joint ACM/IEEE Conference on Digital Libraries • http://www.jcdl.org • June 24-28, 2001 in Roanoke, VA • Conference Committee: • General Chair: Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech • Program Chair: Christine Borgman, UCLA • Treasurer: Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School • Posters Chair: Craig Nevill-Manning, Rutgers U.

  5. Why this topic today? • Many users (patrons) prefer digital libraries to traditional libraries or the Web • Digital library collections often are free or less expensive, so are heavily used • Most publishers are working toward digital libraries to allow access to their content • Library and information science professionals are key players in building digital libraries

  6. Outline • Grand Challenge • Scaling / Technology • Framework, Theory • Simplification: DC, OAI • Example Applications

  7. Libraries of the FutureJCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press World Nation Province City Community

  8. Licklider – Unified Theory? • Not ready in 1960s • Analog – unified field theory in physics • “Mess” today – segmented field, specialities • Database <-> Knowledge <-> Content Mgmnt • Multimedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext • Logic, Algebra, Artificial Intelligence, … • Expensive, annoying for users • Don’t know where to look • Don’t know how to use services

  9. Locating Digital Libraries in Computing and Communications Technology Space Digital Libraries technology trajectory: intellectual access to globally distributed information Communications (bandwidth, connectivity) Computing (flops) Digital content less more

  10. Grand Challenges Can • Mobilize the community • Spur creativity • Lead to important benefits in society • Push researchers to develop relevant theories • Force people to work in teams/groups • Convince funding agencies to invest • Help bring about integration of systems, interoperability, and seamless interfaces

  11. DLs: Why of Global Interest? • National projects can preserve antiquities and heritage: cultural, historical, linguistic, scholarly • Knowledge and information are essential to economic and technological growth, education • DL - a domain for international collaboration • wherein all can contribute and benefit • which leverages investment in networking • which provides useful content on Internet & WWW • which will tie nations and peoples together more strongly and through deeper understanding

  12. Digital Libraries --- Objectives • World Lit.: 24hr / 7day / from desktop • Integrated “super” information systems: 5S: streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies • Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost • Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery • Disintermediation -> Collaboration • Universities Reclaim Property • Interactive Courseware, Student Works • Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

  13. User User User User MARIAN Layers User Interface Layer User Information Layer Search Engine Layer Database Layer

  14. DL Components Gateways User Interfaces MM/ HT Renderer Workflow Mgr Search Engines DBMS Rights Mgr Data, MM Info Repository

  15. Digital LibrariesShorten the Chain from Author Editor Reviewer Publisher A&I Consolidator Library Reader

  16. DLs Shorten the Chain to Roles Digital Library Author Teacher User Reader Editor Learner Reviewer Dr. Patient Librarian

  17. Benefits • Ease of use • Effectiveness • “The benefits of digital libraries will not be appreciated unless they are easy to use effectively.” - IITA Workshop report

  18. Definitions • Library ++ (library+archive+museum+…) • Distributed information system + organization + effective interface • User community + collection + services • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management, handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation

  19. Outline • Grand Challenge • Scaling / Technology • Framework, Theory • Simplification: DC, OAI • Example Applications

  20. PetaPlex Top View 4 ft. side door

  21. PetaPlex Side View 15 shelves Roles: * Support * Cooling * Power Aluminum 8 ft. high 4 ft. wide

  22. Service Machine 1 Service Machine 3 PetaPlex Complex Service Machine 2 Service Machine 4 FRONT END MACHINE RS/6000, 1G RAM, 4 Proc. Nanoserver PetaPlex Core Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver Nanoserver

  23. PetaPlex • Digital Library Machine (“super” object store): Parallel computer / storage utility • Research: inverted files, video server, … • Knowledge Systems Incorporated is supplying VT-PetaPlex-1 with 2.5 terabytes through 100 nodes: • Net connection + 25GB disk + 233 MHz Pentium + Linux

  24. Structured Video Browser(making video into hypermedia)www.learn.umd.edu • IBrowse • Expository multimedia • Narrative Structures

  25. MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Users Web Search Engines WWW 5 1 3’ Servlet Servlet Servlet MPEG-7 Description Module 4’ 4 Servlet Engine 2 5’ Web Server Search Server 3 DB OS ICU Information and Communication University MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Tech.

  26. MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Video Data Description Scheme Description Schemes Design Tool Description Generator Meta Database Video Database Presentation Module Player Retrieval Server Module ICU Information and Communication University MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Architecture

  27. LMDS offers a LOT of bandwidth(comparison to previous auctions) LMDS MMDS DBS PCS A-C Block LMDS is: - 1300 MHz in two “Blocks” ( 28-31 GHz) - Over 2X bandwidth of AM/FM radio, VHF/UHF television, and Cellular telephone combined. - More than sum of previous 16 auctions Cellular Unserved Digital Audio Radio Service PCS D-F Block Wireless Communications Service Interactive & Video Data 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 MHz

  28. LMDS Hub Site at Slusher Hall Wavtrace Tower 1 Wavtrace Tower 2 Radio Hut

  29. Eventually LMDS could be used in combination with other wireless and wireline technologies to reach individual homes

  30. SPIRE Visualization

  31. CAVE-ETD • CAVE-ETD is a simulation of a library that runs in a CAVE (VR environment). • Populated with a subset of ETD records. room room room Main Foyer room

  32. Reading Book Abstract

  33. CCLINC SERVER Summarization BugHanI IlBonE Ddo MiSaIlEul BalSaHan Deus HaDa Info Detection What is the north korean movement in the front line? Extraction What is the status of nk missile launch against japan? It seems that North Korea launch a missile again After North Korea launched a Daipodong missile last month, NK is perceived to proceed to an additional test launch. Korea, US and Japan enter into an alert state, and prepare for a joint response policy. Korea estimates that the additional launch will be on 09/05. Japan estimates that NK’s missile range is short.US information says that there is no sign of launch yet. Translation DARPA Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System 2-way Speech Transation

  34. Outline • Grand Challenge • Scaling / Technology • Framework, Theory • Simplification: DC, OAI • Example Applications

  35. Definitions • Library ++ (library+archive+museum+…) • Distributed information system + organization + effective interface • User community + collection + services • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management, handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation

  36. Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that • help satisfy info needs of users (societies) • provide info services (scenarios) • organize info in usable ways (structures) • present info in usable ways (spaces) • communicate info with users (streams)

  37. 5S Layers Societies Scenarios Spaces Structures Streams

  38. Definition: 5S Framework • Societies: interacting people (, computers) • Scenarios: services, functions, operations, methods • Spaces: domains + constraints (e.g., distance, adjacency): 2D, vector, probability • Structures: relations, trees, nodes and arcs • Streams: sequences of items (text, audio, video, network traffic) • (5 Element System: Fire, Wood, Earth, Metal, Water)

  39. 5S: Components • Societies: roles, rituals, reasons, relationships, artifacts • Scenarios: acquire, index, consult, administer, preserve • Spaces: physical, temporal, functional, presentational, conceptual • Structures: architectures, taxonomies, schema, grammars, links, objects • Streams: granularities, protocols, paths, flows, turbulences

  40. 5S: Combinations • Societies + Scenarios = user model • Societies + Scenarios + Spaces = user interface • Streams + Structures = markup • Streams + Structures + Scenarios = object • Structures + Scenarios = DBMS

  41. Outline • Grand Challenge • Scaling / Technology • Framework, Theory • Simplification: DC, OAI • Example Applications

  42. Complex to Simple MARC ($50) Dublin Core (DC)

  43. Author‘s tools www.physik.uni-oldenburg.de/EPS/mmm

  44. DL Components Gateways User Interfaces MM/ HT Renderer Workflow Mgr Search Engines DBMS Rights Mgr Data, MM Info Repository

  45. Open Archives Initiative OAI www.openarchives.org openarchives@openarchives.org