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Archeoastronomy. The study of the astronomical practices, celestial lore, mythologies, religions and world-views of all ancient cultures. Early Astronomy. Why People Began to Watch the Sky Time Navigation Religion Entertainment 2000B.C.

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archeoastronomy

Archeoastronomy

The study of the astronomical practices, celestial lore, mythologies, religions and world-views of all ancient cultures.

early astronomy
Early Astronomy
  • Why People Began to Watch the Sky
    • Time
    • Navigation
    • Religion
    • Entertainment
  • 2000B.C.
    • First constellations recorded by Sumerians is first written astronomy-but astronomy is still older
astronomy timeline
Astronomy Timeline
  • 3500B.C.-Construction of Stonehenge I begins.
  • 2500B.C.-Pyramids in Egypt.
  • 2300B.C.-Megaliths appear at Stonehenge
  • 1400B.C.-Chinese record solar eclipse
  • 500B.C.-Babylonian astronomy reaches highest point
  • 300B.C.-Greek astronomy reaches its height
  • Eratosthenes determines size of the earth
  • 135B.C.-Hipparchus develops first star catalog and measures star brightness
astronomy timeline continued
Astronomy Timeline Continued
  • 100B.C.-Chinese astronomers estimate size of the round earth and moon
  • 28B.C.- Chinese record sunspots
  • 200A.D.-Teotihuacan Empire reaches its height
  • 250A.D.-Rise of Mayans, 300A.D.-Nazca Culture in Peru
  • 500A.D.-Rise of Anasazi in American Southwest
  • 820A.D.-Muslim astronomy begins
astronomy timeline continued1
Astronomy Timeline Continued
  • 900A.D.-End of Mayan period/Begin Mississippian culture
  • 920A.D.-Building of Uxmal in Yucatan
  • 940A.D.-Oldest Chinese star map
  • 1000A.D.-Caracol at Chichen Itza constructed
  • 1100A.D.-Decline and disappearance of Anasazi
  • 1200A.D.-Rise of Inca
  • 1300A.D.-Aztec Civilization Rises/Height of Cahokia
stonehenge
Stonehenge
  • Built 2800-1800 B.C.
  • It’s the oldest timepiece in existence
  • Designed for astronomical observation
  • It’s a monument in S. England
  • Helps in predicting eclipses & cycles of
  • moon
  • Aligns at the solstices
egyptian pyramidal astronomy
Egyptian Pyramidal Astronomy
  • Astronomy used for positioning of the pyramids
  • Vents & passageways align with specific stars
  • Pyramids are slightly off
  • Divide the sky into constellations
  • These are known as star clocks
  • “Diagonal calendars”
  • Calendars – 3 seasons
the teotihuacan
The Teotihuacan
  • Population over 200,000 people
  • Around Mexico city
  • Largest city in ancient world
  • 650 A.D. – great fire swept the city
  • Calendar with moon phases
  • 2 important pyramids – sun & moon
  • Pyramids are flat topped
the maya
The Maya
  • Believed that Earth was flat with 4 corners
  • Portrayed ecliptic in art work
  • Concluded year was slightly more than 365 days (Evidence of a calendar system)
  • Observed Venus & Mercury when visible (observatories)
  • Math – they created the number 0
  • Also created a writing system (hieroglyphics)
  • Civilization found in Mexico
the nazca
The Nazca
  • Built lines for aliens 300 A.D.
  • Located in Peru
  • Nazca lines that they created are known as “geoglyphs”
  • Since these lines are on a flat surface and its climate is extremely dry, nearly all geoglyphs remain completely intact.
  • Appeared 500 B.C.
the anasazi
The Anasazi
  • 2,000 years ago
  • Known for their agriculture
  • Found supernova in 1054 in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
  • Located North Pole using trellis twigs
  • Forecast weather by insect activity & wind direction
the inca
The Inca
  • Interest in dark space between stars
  • Observed sun in small caves – built with windows that centered around winter solstice
  • 1200 A.D.
  • Built their cities high in the moutains (Machu Picchu)
the aztecs
The Aztecs
  • 1300 A.D.
  • Observes of nature & all its cycles, stars, seasons
  • Counting systems based on #20
  • Pyramids aligned with solar system
  • 2 calendars – religion & time
  • Created a writing system
  • Created a sun stone calendar
  • Mapped out the sky
archeoastronomy in illinois
Archeoastronomy in Illinois
  • 1000 A.D. woodhenge in Illinois – allows us to tell time
  • Used woodhenge for harvest
  • This was an ancient calendar built in the Mississippian landscape
woodhenge
Woodhenge
  • Amesbury, England
  • Many made through out the world
  • “Wooden Stonehenge”
  • Central sun – watching station
  • Sun aligned with poles at solstices, equinoxes, and other important dates
  • Religious