Mesopotamia. Geography. “Land b/t Rivers” Tigris & Euphrates Modern day Iraq Arid climate Very hot & dry, little rainfall Resources Lacked stone, timber, copper, tin, iron, gold Had water & mud = “gifts” Geography/Climate caused people have pessimistic attitude. Map Mesopotamia.
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Geography • “Land b/t Rivers” • Tigris & Euphrates • Modern day Iraq • Arid climate • Very hot & dry, little rainfall • Resources • Lacked stone, timber, copper, tin, iron, gold • Had water & mud = “gifts” • Geography/Climate caused people have pessimistic attitude
Mesopotamia Civilization • Sumer 1st civilization • 5000 BCE developed city states in Southern Mesopotamia • Invented wheel, buildings, irrigation systems, plow, bronze weapons, writing (cuneiform) • Important: • Each city state independent • City states fought o/ irrigable land & trading rights • Future leaders would try unite lands/people
Mesopotamian Leaders • Akkad • Sargon the Great • Babylonia • Hammurabi • Assyria • Assurnasirpal • Sennacherib • Esarhaddon • Assurbanipal • Babylonia II • Nabopolassar • Nebuchsdnezzar
Kings: From Babylon to Baghdad Video Questions • How has geography played a role in the development of Mesopotamia? • What are the similarities/differences b/t ancient and modern Mesopotamian leaders? • How have the people been affected by the leaders of Mesopotamia (past and present)?
Mesopotamian Society Hammurabi Code Project
Hammurabi’s Code • 282 percepts/laws • Dealt w/ social, family issues
The “Code” Project • Step #1: • Analyze Hammurabi’s Code • Step #2: • Read topic articles • Step #3 • Use “Code” and “Readings” to answer Poster Questions • Step #4: • Create a Poster • Step #5: • Present Poster to class
Hammurabi Code Project • Healthcare • Criminal Justice System • Family Life • Jobs • Slaves
Summarizing Hammurabi’s Code • Was Hammurabi’s form of justice fair? • Were the laws appropriate for their time period? • Do you think these laws were actively followed and enforced? • Should laws promote punishment or reform?
Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters • Polytheistic • Belief many gods • Anthropomorphic • Human-like characteristics • Had human emotions • Compassionate, cruel • Also envisioned darker powers (demons/monsters)
Demons and Monsters Pazuzu Lamashtu Huwawa
The Seven Great Gods and Marduk • An/Anu • Father of Gods; God of Sky • Enlil • God of Air • Utu/Shamash • Sun God; God of Truth and Justice • Nanna/Sin • Moon God • Inanna/Ishtar • Goddess of Love and War • Ninhursag • Mother Earth • Enki/Ea • God of Fresh Waters; God of Magic, Wisdom, Arts • Marduk • National God of Babylon
Ziggurat • Tiered temple made of mud-bricks • Dwellings places of the gods • Each city-state had a patron god • Only priests permitted inside ziggurat
Priests and Priestesses • In earliest days, King chief priest • Later professional priesthoods • Various duties: • Ritual slaughter animals • Interpret omens • Singing songs • Provide regular offerings of food and refreshments to deity
Sacred Prostitution • Practice of women offering sex for pay on the sacred grounds of the Temple of Ishtar
Relationship with the Gods • Participated public festivals • Tried to predict “heaven’s will” • Exorcism
“Life” After Death • No notion of an afterlife where the good were rewarded • Life after Death was dismal and bleak • “Land of No Return” What then was the incentive for living a pious life?