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Representative Organisms. Protists. Transport and Excretion: carry out diffusion to get nutrients into the cell and waste out of the cell Once inside the cell, nutrients are moved about by the movement of cytoplasm, called cyclosis . Sometimes excreted through anal pore

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  • Transport and Excretion: carry out diffusion to get nutrients into the cell and waste out of the cell
    • Once inside the cell, nutrients are moved about by the movement of cytoplasm, called cyclosis.
    • Sometimes excreted through anal pore
  • Respiration: diffusion through cell membrane
  • Regulation: diffusion
  • Nutrition: Some absorb nutrients through cell membrane; pseudopods surround food and create a food vacuole; cilia sweep food into gullet
protists cont
Protists cont…
  • Synthesis: enzymes to digest food
  • Reproduction: asexual reproduction; conjugation- sharing of genetic material
  • Growth and Development: unicellular organisms grow larger in size
annelid worms
Annelid Worms
  • Transport: circulatory system is a closed system, meaning the blood, which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in addition to nutrients, is inside the vessels at all times
  • Excretion: digestive waste through anus; cellular waste through nephridia- excretory organs that filter fluid
  • Respiration: Aquatic annelids often breathe through gills; Land-dwelling annelids, such as earthworms, take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide through their moist skin.
annelids continued
Annelids continued…
  • Regulation- nephridia through coelum
  • Nutrition- filter feeders or through single digestive tract
  • Synthesis- creates and secretes a mucus to keep the worm’s skin moist
  • Reproduction: Most annelids reproduce sexually; hermaphrodites; clitellum- bad of thickened segments secretes mucus that creates cocoon around fertilized eggs
  • Growth and Development- multi-cellular; young worms hatch and grow larger
  • Transport: open circulatory system, meaning the blood flows into the tissue and comes into direct contact with all the cells
    • grasshopper’s blood only carries nutrients
  • Excretion: Malpighian tubules are saclike organs that extract wastes from the blood and then add them to feces, or digestive wastes, that move through the gut
  • Respiration: Air enters and leaves the tracheal tubes through spiracles
  • Regulation: waxy covering on exoskeleton to prevent body loss
  • Nutrition: various mouthparts depending on source of food

Synthesis: produce saliva containing digestive enzymes that help break down food; pheromones- chemical signals used for communication

  • Reproduction: Terrestrial arthropods have internal fertilization; Aquatic arthropods may have internal or external fertilization
  • Growth and Development: involve metamorphosis, which is a process of changing shape and form. Insects undergo either incomplete metamorphosis or complete metamorphosis; grow larger by molting (shedding exoskeleton)
  • Transport: double loop circulatory system
    • Loop 1- oxygen poor blood to lungs and skin; oxygen rich blood returns back to heart
    • Loop 2- oxygen rich blood to rest of body; oxygen poor blood returns back to heart
  • Excretion: cloaca- muscular cavity through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave body
  • Respiration: larval amphibians breathe through the skin as well as gills; lungs replace gills in the adult stage
  • Regulation: kidneys filter wastes; regulate temperature through evaporative cooling and behavioral techniques
amphibians continued
Amphibians continued
  • Nutrition: tadpoles-filter feeders; adults- mouth  esophagus  stomach  small intestine  large intestine  cloaca
  • Synthesis:Most adult amphibians have skin glands that ooze an unpleasant-tasting and poisonous substance, or toxin.
  • Reproduction: in most species of amphibians, the female lays eggs in water, then the male fertilizes them externally
  • Transport: closed system with two loops- one going to lungs and the other going to the rest of the body
  • Excretion: highly developed kidneys to filter wastes; anus-opening for removal of digestive wastes
  • Respiration: lungs; diaphragm- powerful muscle to lower chest cavity to increase volume
  • Regulation: homeostasis; kidneys
mammals cont
Mammals cont…
  • Nutrition: teeth and digestive tract have changed as feeding trends have changed; enzymes in stomach break down food; lining is designed to absorb nutrients
  • Synthesis: Endocrine glands regulate body activities by releasing chemicals called hormones that affect other organs and tissues
  • Reproduction: internal fertilization; The male deposits sperm inside the reproductive tract of the female, where fertilization occurs
  • Growth and Development: specific to the organism