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Exercise 18. Endocrine System Glucometer. Portland Community College BI 232. The endocrine system. Diverse collection of organs and tissues that contain endocrine glands. Glands secrete chemicals called hormones into blood capillaries

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Exercise 18

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exercise 18

Exercise 18

Endocrine SystemGlucometer

Portland Community College

BI 232

the endocrine system
The endocrine system
  • Diverse collection of organs and tissues that contain endocrine glands.
  • Glands secrete chemicals called hormones into blood capillaries
  • Hormones are transported to target cells at a distant location
  • Hormone binds to a specific receptor and the cell responds to message.
endocrine and exocrine
Endocrine and Exocrine
  • Exocrine glands secrete substances into ducts, which transport the secretions internal cavities of organs or to surface of the skin.
neuroendocrine effect
Neuroendocrine effect
  • The endocrine system operates in conjunction with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis and to ensure that bodily functions are carried out efficiently.
  • Nerve impulses can affect the release of hormones and hormones can regulate nerve impulses
endocrine organs in head
Endocrine Organs in Head
  • Pineal gland Secrets:
  • Melatonin
    • Involved in circadian rhythms
    • Day  melatonin, Night  melatonin
    • Produces sleepiness
endocrine organs in head7
Endocrine Organs in Head
  • Hypothalamus produces a number of releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones.
  • Stored in posterior pituitary
  • ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
    • Reduces urine output by increasing water reabsorption in the kidney
    • Plays small role in blood pressure regulation
  • Oxytocin
    • Causes uterine contractions in labor
    • Causes milk let down in lactating mothers
endocrine organs in head8
Endocrine Organs in Head
  • Hypophysis
  • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • Regulates the activity of the cortex of the adrenal gland
  • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • Stimulates production and release of thyroid hormone
  • GH (growth hormone)
    • Stimulates growth of bones, cartilage, muscle
    • Timing and amount released determines body size
endocrine organs in head9
Endocrine Organs in Head
  • PRL (prolactin)
    • Stimulates breast development
    • Promotes and maintains lactation after childbirth
  • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
    • Causes formation of ovarian follicles and stimulates them to produce estrogen
    • Stimulates sperm development in men
  • LH (luteinizing hormone)
    • Initiates ovulation, maintains corpus luteum
    • Regulates testosterone production in males
endocrine organs in neck
Endocrine Organs in Neck
  • Thyroid gland secretes:
  • Thyroid Hormone
    • Regulates metabolic rate of the entire body
    • Important in development of the nervous system
  • Calcitonin
    • Decreases bone reabsorption, lowering serum calcium levels
  • PTH (parathyroid hormone)
    • Increases serum calcium
    • Decreases serum phosphorus
thyroid histology13
Thyroid Histology
  • Follicular cells produce the colloid (contains precursors to thyroid hormone)
  • Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin
endocrine organs in thoracic
Endocrine organs in thoracic
  • Heart: If blood volume is elevated above normal, cardiac muscle cells in the heart was secrete natriuretic peptides.
  • Act on the kidneys to promote the loss of sodium ions and water.
  • The thymus gland produces hormones called thymosins that promote maturation of T-lymphocytes that coordinate the body’s immune response.
endocrine organs located in abdominopelvic cavity
Endocrine Organs located in abdominopelvic cavity
  • Pancreas secretes:
  • Insulin
    • Released in response to high blood sugar
    • Increases cellular absorption of glucose
    • Increases rate of lipogenesis and formation of glycogen in the liver
  • Glucagon
    • Released in response to low blood sugar
    • Elevates blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of glycogen.
  • Acinar cells secrete digestive enzymes (exocrine)
  • Islet cells secrete insulin (beta cells) and glucagon (alpha cells)
endocrine organs located in abdominopelvic cavity19
Endocrine Organs located in abdominopelvic cavity
  • Adrenal glands secrete:
  • Glucocorticoids (Cortisone)
    • Released in response to stress
    • Increases formation of glucose from protein and fat breakdown
    • Decreases inflammation
  • Aldosterone
    • Increases blood volume by causing kidneys to retain sodium (where sodium goes water goes too) in exchange for potassium
    • Increased blood volume will increase blood pressure
endocrine organs located in abdominopelvic cavity20
Endocrine Organs located in abdominopelvic cavity
  • Androgens
    • Are male sex hormones that are produced in small quantities and converted to estrogens (female sex hormones) when they enter the blood
  • Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
    • Fight or flight response
    • Increase heart rate, increase skeletal muscle blood flow, decrease skin blood flow
hormones from the kidneys
Hormones from the Kidneys
  • Erythropoietin
    • Stimulates RBC production
  • Calcitriol
    • Stimulates calcium and phosphate absorption
    • Stimulates calcium release from bone
    • Inhibits PTH secretion
adrenal cortex
Adrenal Cortex

Zona Reticularis:


Zona Fasiculata:


Zona Glomerulosa:


  • Ovaries in females produce estrogens
  • Testes in males produce testosterone
  • Have an outer cortex that contains ovarian follicles at various stages of development.
  • Each follicle contains a developing egg cell called an oocyte
  • Inner medulla is a region of loose connective tissue
  • Tunica albuginea is a fibrous connective tissue covering.
  • Connective tissue partitions derived from the tunica albuginea divide the testes into lobules
  • Each lobule of the testes are three or four seminiferous tubules.
  • Collectively these cells are called spermatogenic cells.
  • The interstitial areas contain the interstitial (Leydig) cells.
  • Type 1: Insulin Dependent Diabetes
  • AKA: juvenile diabetes
  • Caused by a lack of insulin
  • Autoimmune disorder
    • Immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas
  • Type 2: Non-Insulin Dependent
  • Caused by an insensitivity of cells to insulin.
  • Diabetes mellitus marked by hyperglycemia
    •  urine production (polyuria)
    •  thirst (polydipsia)
    •  eating (polyphagia)
diagnosing diabetes mellitus
Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus
  • Normal blood glucose levels: 70-100 mg/dl
  • Diabetes mellitus:
    • A fasting glucose level above 140 mg/dl on two separate occasions, or
    • A blood sugar over 200 mg/dl 2 hours after oral glucose tolerance test with 75gm of glucose
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance (Pre-Diabetes)
    • A fasting glucose level between 100-126 mg/dl on two separate occasions, or
    • A blood sugar between 140-200 mg/dl 2 hours after oral glucose tolerance test with 75gm of glucose
the end
The End

The End