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Ecology of Populations. Chapter 46. Outline. Scope of Ecology Population Density and Distribution Population Growth Models Survivorship Curves Age Distributions Regulation of Population Size Life History Patterns Human Population Growth Environmental Impact. Scope of Ecology.

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ecology of populations

Ecology of Populations

Chapter 46

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

outline
Outline
  • Scope of Ecology
  • Population Density and Distribution
  • Population Growth Models
  • Survivorship Curves
  • Age Distributions
  • Regulation of Population Size
  • Life History Patterns
  • Human Population Growth
    • Environmental Impact

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

scope of ecology
Scope of Ecology
  • Ecology - Study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms and the physical environment.
    • Habitat - Place where an organism lives.
    • Population - All the organisms within an area belonging to the same species.
    • Community - All various populations interacting at same locale.
    • Ecosystem - Community of populations.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

ecological levels
Ecological Levels

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

density and distribution of populations
Density and Distribution of Populations
  • Population Density - Number of individuals per unit area or volume.
  • Population Distribution - Pattern of dispersal of individuals within the area of interest.
    • Ecologists want to analyze and discover what causes the spatial and temporal “patchiness” of organisms.
      • Limiting Factors are factors that particularly determine whether an organism lives in an area.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

uniform distribution
Uniform Distribution

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

random distribution
Random Distribution

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

clumped distribution
Clumped Distribution

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

characteristics of populations
Characteristics of Populations
  • Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase (r)
    • If immigration (+) and emigration (-) cancel each other out, then population growth can simply be modeled by birth rate minus the death rate.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

population growth models
Population Growth Models
  • Exponential Growth
    • Number of individuals added each generation increases as the total number of females increases.
      • Biotic Potential - Maximum population growth that can possibly occur under ideal circumstances.
        • Environmental Resistance - All environmental conditions that prevent populations from achieving biotic potential.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

exponential growth curve
Exponential Growth Curve

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

exponential growth equation
Exponential Growth Equation

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

logistic growth
Logistic Growth
  • Logistic growth occurs when environmental resistance comes into play and retards exponential growth.
    • Living populations must eventually come under the control of environmental resistance.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

logistic growth14
Logistic Growth

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

logistic growth15
Logistic Growth

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity
  • Carrying Capacity is the maximum number of individuals of a given species the environment can support.
    • The closer the population to the carrying capacity, the greater the environmental resistance.
      • Biotic potential is having full effect and birthrate is a maximum during exponential growth.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

mortality patterns
Mortality Patterns
  • A cohort is composed of all the members of a population born at the same time.
    • Survivorship is the probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving to particular ages.
      • Survivorship Curves

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

survivorship curves
Survivorship Curves

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

survivorship curves19
Survivorship Curves

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

age distributions
Age Distributions
  • Populations differ according to what proportion of the population falls in each age category.
    • At least three structures possible.
      • Increasing
      • Stable
      • Decreasing

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

u s age distributions
U.S. Age Distributions

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

regulation of population size
Regulation of Population Size
  • Density - Dependent Factors
    • Number of organisms present influences the effect of the factor.
      • Competition
      • Predation
  • Density - Independent Factors
    • Number of organisms present does not influence the effect of the factor.
      • Natural Disasters

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

life history patterns
Life History Patterns
  • r - Strategists (Opportunistic)
    • Produce large numbers of offspring.
    • Small body size.
    • Early maturity
    • No parental care.
    • Density independent controls.
    • Good dispersers and colonizers.

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

life history patterns24
Life History Patterns
  • k - Strategists (Equilibrium)
    • Produce small numbers of offspring.
    • Large body size.
    • Late maturity
    • Significant parental care.
    • Density dependent controls.
    • Specialists

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

human population growth
Human Population Growth
  • Human population has an exponential growth pattern.
    • Doubling time currently estimated at 53 years.
  • Population Size
    • 1800 1 Billion
    • 1930 2 Billion
    • 1960 3 Billion
    • 2000 6 Billion

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

world population growth
World Population Growth

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

country development
Country Development
  • More-Developed Countries (MDCs)
    • Slow population growth.
    • High standard of living.
    • Completed Demographic Transition.
      • North America and Europe
  • Less-Developed Countries (LDCs)
    • Rapid population growth.
    • Low standard of living.
      • Latin America
      • Africa and Asia

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

age distributions28
Age Distributions
  • Age Structure Diagrams divide populations into three age groups.
    • Pre-Reproductive
    • Reproductive
    • Post-Reproductive

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

more developed countries
More-Developed Countries

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

less developed countries
Less-Developed Countries

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

environmental impact
Environmental Impact
  • Environmental impact of a population is measured in terms of:
    • Population Size
    • Resource Consumption Per Capita
    • Resultant Pollution

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

environmental impact32
Environmental Impact

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.

review
Review
  • Scope of Ecology
  • Population Density and Distribution
  • Population Growth Models
  • Survivorship Curves
  • Age Distributions
  • Regulation of Population Size
  • Life History Patterns
  • Human Population Growth
    • Environmental Impact

Mader: Biology 8th Ed.