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U.S. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Update

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  1. U.S.Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)Update Mitch Narins Air Traffic Organization Navigation Services May 2006

  2. Evolution of IFR Navigation in the National Airspace Gone Gone VOR, DME, Tacan WAAS Four-course range Loran C GPS NDB Research Almost Gone LAAS Microwave Landing System Instrument Landing System 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

  3. FY 2004 Operations & Maintenance Budget Allocation for Navigation Systems • Precision Approach Systems Account for Approximately 42% of the Navigation Services Systems and almost 50% of the Annual O&M Budget Allocation for Navigation Services. • ALS – Approach Lighting System • GS – Glide Slope • IM – Inner Marker • LOC - Localizer • LOM – Locator Outer Marker • MALS – Medium Intensity ALS • MALSR – MALS w/Runway Alignment • MM – Middle Marker • OM – Outer Marker • RVR – Runway Visual Range • SSALR – Simplified Short ALS • SSALS – Simplified Short ALS

  4. Intl Cooperation….. A Necessity • Approx. 77 million sq. km of total airspace • Largest area of all ANSPs (Australia 2nd at 47 million sq. km) • 15.15% of earth’s surface

  5. Moving To a Performance Based NAS • FAA’s Goal Is To Design An Integrated, Performance Based National Airspace System That Can Meet The Needs Of Tomorrow And Satisfy ICAO’s Vision Of A Safe, Secure, And Seamless International Air Transportation System Presentation to: Regional Airline Association Flight Technology Committee Name: Phil LemanDate: June 2, 2005

  6. What Is “Performance-Based” Navigation? • An End-to-End Air Transportation System Based On Performance Standards Rather Than Specific Technologies Or Equipment • Area Navigation (RNAV) • Required Navigation Performance (RNP) • Recognizes The Ability Of Modern Aircraft To Operate Safely And Efficiently Using A Variety Of On-Board Systems and External Signals

  7. GPS Background • Designed as a dual-use system • Military applications for US and Allied use • Civilian applications for worldwide use • Open signal specification available to industry and all users, both US and International • GPS not originally designed to do many of the civil applications being done today • Modernization program in progress • Consistent U.S. National Policy from both Executive and Legislative branches • U.S. Public Law - December 1997 • U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Policy – March 1996; updated December 2004

  8. Current Requirement Actual Performance Current Objective GPS User Range Error (URE) History

  9. Increasing System Capabilities w Increasing Defense / Civil Benefit GPS Modernization Path Block IIA/IIR Block IIR-M, IIF Block III Basic GPS • Std Service (16-24m SEP) • Single frequency (L1) • Coarse acquisition (C/A) code navigation • Precise Service (16m SEP) • Y-Code (L1Y & L2Y) • Y-Code navigation Block IIIA: • Increased anti-jam power • Increased security • Increased accuracy • Navigation surety • Backward compatibility • Assured availability • Controlled integrity • 4th civil signal (L1C) IIR-M: IIA/IIR capabilities plus • 2nd civil signal (L2C) • M-Code (L1M & L2M) IIF: IIR-M capability plus • 3rd civil signal (L5)

  10. GPS Modernized Signals • L1 C/A – Available on all satellites • Backwards compatible for existing civil and military applications • L2C - First available with IIR-M launch 21 Sep 05 • Configuration of signal determined via interagency process • Use for non-safety of flight applications, not in ARNS band • L5 - First available with first GPS IIF launch (2007) • Improved signal structure enhances performance • WRC-2000 added signal component to protected aeronautical band • Interoperable with Galileo L1 • L1C - First available with first GPS III launch (2013) • Data-less signal component improves tracking performance • Interoperable with Galileo L1

  11. New U.S. Policy • U.S. Space-based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Policy • Released by the President - December 15, 2004 • Replaced the 1996 U.S. GPS Policy • Provide updated, comprehensive, and responsive guidance • Improved management processes for all space-based PNT issues

  12. WAAS • Operational System – Commissioned July 2003 • Enhances Navigation In All Phases Of Flight • Enroute, Arrival, and Departure: • Provides 100% Availability Of GNSS For Even The Most Critical RNP or RNAV Operations • Provides Coverage At All Altitudes From 100,000 Feet To The Surface • Provides Navigation Services To Users That Are Not Currently Served • Approach: • Enhances Safety By Providing Vertical Guidance To Every Runway End In The Coverage Area • No Ground Hardware Required At Airport to Acquire Signal • Allows IFR Operations To All Qualified Airports

  13. WAAS Operations • FAA Technical Center continuously monitors the WAAS system Performance • 99% coverage over CONUS • There have been no HMIs since system inception • WAAS has experienced a number of outages since commissioning • Omits short outages due to GUS switchovers and minor ionospheric disturbances • Equates to 99.87% availability • Outages are classified into 4 categories • Total SIS outage (AOR-W, POR, or both) • Major IONO storm (loss of service over all or most of CONUS) • Minor IONO storm (loss of service over a portion of CONUS • GUS switchovers • Many have occurred since commissioning. Adverse effect when there is not dual GEO coverage • User can lose LPV WAAS service for up to 5 minutes • WAAS has experienced several outages as of late during the upgrade process

  14. WAAS Architecture

  15. WAAS LPV Availability

  16. 2003 2003 – 2008 WAAS Schedule • WAAS Commissioned • Full LPV Performance • 13 additional reference stations • Improved software efficiency • System improvements will be brought online incrementally • End state performance will result in greater availability of approach with vertical guidance (LPV - 250 foot minimums) • 99% CONUS • 95% in most of Alaska • Two GEOs in view to all users over all CONUS and Alaska • GLS Development • L5 frequency (block IIF & GPS III) • Better interference mitigation • Procedure Development ~ 300/yr • 2007 • 2015 • 2004 – 2028

  17. Development Activities: LPV • Hardware • 13 Additional Wide Area Reference Stations To Improve Availability And Coverage • 4 Alaska • 5 Mexico • 4 Canada • Equipment Upgrade Using Commercial Off The Shelf Hardware When Feasible • Communications • Enhancing The Terrestrial Communications Network • Software • More Efficient Integrity Monitor Algorithms • Enhanced O&M Efficiency • Prime Contractor - Raytheon

  18. Predicted Availability Gains WAAS Commissioning - 2003 Full Capability - 2008 • Availability over the majority of CONUS improves from 99.5% to 99.9% • Alaskan availability improves from less than 75% to 99 – 99.9% • Significant availability gains in northeast and southern California, Texas, and Florida

  19. Regional Cooperation • USA, Canada, and Mexico Are Working Through The North American Aviation Trilateral (NAAT) To Cooperate On The Implementation of GNSS In The North American Region • Canada And Mexico Will Host Additional WAAS Reference Stations • 5 Mexico • Mexico City – Installed August 2005 • Merida – Installed October 2005 • Puerto Vallarta – Installed November 2005 • La Paz – Surveyed in December, Installation Scheduled for August 2006 • Tapachula – Surveyed in December, Installation Scheduled for August 2006 • 4 Canada • Gander – Installed June 2005 • Goose Bay – Installed September 2005 • Iqaluit – Site Survey Completed August 2004, Installation Scheduled for August 2006 • Winnipeg – Site Survey Completed October 2004, Installation Scheduled for August 2006 • Provides WAAS Coverage In Canada And Mexico, Improves Availability For U.S. • Expect Operational In 2006 And 2007 Respectively

  20. PanAmSat 133°W Telesat 107°W GEO Satellite Improvements • Commissioned system utilizes two Inmarsat satellites • Main problem is single coverage over the majority of the United States • Contract Awarded to Lockheed Martin to provide: • Leased payloads on up to 3 satellites • Ground infrastructure to support signal in space • Currently acquiring two satellite links • Provides dual coverage over entire United States • PanAmSat: Launched October 13th • Telesat: Launched September 9th • Preliminary acceptance testing for both satellites expected to be complete Spring 2006 • Expect operational by first quarter FY 07 New AOR/W Position 142°W Original AOR/W Position 54°W POR 178°E

  21. WAAS – GLS Development • Will Commence In 2008 • In USA, GLS Capability Will Require Modernized GPS Constellation • Addition Of Second Frequency, L5 • Availability Of L5 For Operational Use By Aviation Expected By 2013 • FAA Ground Upgrade Complete In 2013 • Hardware: • Upgrade of Reference Station Receivers To Receive L5 • Software: • Broadcast Of WAAS Message On L5 • Will Eliminate Loss Of Vertical Guidance Caused By Ionospheric Storms • Full GLS Capability Throughout Coverage Area • System Will Be Capable Of Augmenting Other Satellite Navigation System Constellations

  22. Summary • GPS • System is robust and operating above specifications • Modernized system will meet all aviation needs • WAAS • Commissioned For IFR Use On July 10, 2003, Incrementally Improving to Add Capability • Benefits All Classes Of Aviation Users, Enhancing Navigation In All Phases Of Flight • Supports RNP And Performance Based NAS • Aviation Receivers Available Today, More Coming To Market Over Next Three Years • FAA POC: Leo Eldredge, GNSS Program Manager ATO-W, Navigation Services 800 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20591 leo.eldredge@faa.gov