Leaving Certificate Agricultural Science Revision Exercises Soil
Parent Material • Name the three different types of parent rock? • Give examples of each type of rock • How is each rock type formed? • What is meant by organic parent material? • Name the 2 main types of peat • Describe how each peat type is produced? • What is weathering? • Describe 4 different types of physical weathering • Describe 5 types of chemical weathering.
Soil Composition • What is the ideal composition of soil? • Why is air and water content of a soil so variable? • What are the different types of soil particles found in soil? Arrange them in decreasing order. • Gravel and sand give rise to what type of soils? • Why is it important to have silt and clay in soil? • What is ion exchange? • Name 2 ions that are attracted to silt and clay surfaces • What is biomass? • What is humus? • What is the role of organic matter in soil? • Compare atmospheric air and soil air
Properties of Soil • What is meant by cation exchange capacity? • What is the normal pH range for agricultural land? • When you measure the ph of soil what element are you measuring the concentration of? • How can the ph of a soil be raised? • What activities of bacteria and fungi are important in soil? • What earthworm’s activities are important in soil? • What are the environmental factors that affect the activities of earthworms? • What is the soil organic matter made up of? • What is humification? • What is mineralisation? • Using a diagram describe the Carbon Cycle
Soil types • List the five factors that affect the formation of soil • Explain how each factor influences soil formation and development • What is a soil profile? • Draw a diagram to illustrate the general structure of a soil profile • What is calcification? Draw a diagram of a soil profile to show calcification • What is acid leaching? • What causes the light colour of the leached horizon in the soil? • What is a soil horizon? • What is the common name of the layer O in the soil profile? • What is podzolisation? • List and describe each of the soil classifications?
Soil Fertility and Crop Growth • What is an essential element? • What is a macro or major element? • List 3 macro elements needed by crops for normal growth? • What is a micro or minor element? • List 3 micro elements needed for normal crop growth • What are the fertilizer elements? Why are they given this name? • Where is nitrogen found in plants? • Why is nitrogen needed by plants? • What happens to a crop or plant if there is a nitrogen deficiency? • List the signs that show a plant has an abundance of nitrogen? • Which nitrogen compounds are used in nitrogen fertilizers? • What is nitrogen fixation?
Soil Fertility Cont.d • What bacteria is needed for nitrogen fixation? • What is a symbiotic relationship? • With which plants do the bacteria have a symbiotic relationship? • What is nitrification? • What is dentrifcation? • Why is phosphorous needed by plants? • What are the signs of phosphorus deficiency in plants? • Why is the pH of the soil important for the availability of phosphorus to plants? • What is liming? • Why is liming carried out? • What are the requirements for ground limestone? • Describe how soil sampling is carried out. • Why is soil sampling carried out?
Fertilisers and Manures • What is the difference between a fertilizer and a manure? • What is a simple fertilizer and a straight fertilizer? • What is a compound fertilizer? • What are the most important straight fertilizers in use in Ireland? • Why must CAN be carefully stored? How much nitrogen does it contain? • What does CAN stand for? • Why is urea becoming a popular fertilizer? How much nitrogen does it contain? • What disadvantage is associated with urea? • Why is ground rock phosphate confined to forest-tree fertilization? • List 3 ways in which fertilizer can be applied to land. • Why are fertilizers sold in granulated form? • What is meant by hygroscopic in relation to CAN? • What does the term volatilization refer to? • FYM- What level of each nutrient is present? • What level of nutrient is in slurry? • What are the disadvantages of animal slurry?