Lecture 6: The origin of the solar system
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Lecture 6: The origin of the solar system. Terrestrial. vs. Jovian. planets. Heavy elements (Fe,Mg,Si..). Terrestrial:. Got rocks, volcanoes, craters. Can stand on surface. smaller. Closer to the Sun. hotter. H, He. Jovian:. Mainly gas…. Bigger. Outer part of solar system. colder.

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Terrestrial

vs

Jovian

planets


Heavy elements (Fe,Mg,Si..)

Terrestrial:

Got rocks, volcanoes, craters

Can stand on surface

smaller

Closer to the Sun

hotter

H, He

Jovian:

Mainly gas…

Bigger

Outer part of solar system

colder

Pluto is a bit of an exception



Composition?

Go there and get samples….

Spectroscopy…


Gas (atmosphere)

Titan

(Saturn)

molecules

Europa (Jupiter)

solid


Names of the planets in order from the centre?

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, Neptun, Pluto

Where have we (humans)landed?

Moon, Earth

Where have we sent unmanned spacecrafts/probes to land?

Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter,Titan

Where have we sent spacecrafts to “fly by”?

All except Pluto


“ice”

for astronomers...


Asteroids

Eros

~20Km

Hints to formation of the solar system?


„Asteroid“ is Greek for star-like – denotes small,

rocky objects in solar system

The first asteroid was discovered in 1801:

Ceres – 940 km in diameter

There may be more than 1,000,000 asteroids > 1 km

in diameter

The main Asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter



Comets are small, irregular, icy and rocky objects that

show a tail as they approach the Sun

Comets fall into two main classes:

- Short period comets (P<200 yr). Source: Kuiper belt

- Long period comets (P>1000 yr). Source: Oort Cloud

The main parts of a comet are the nucleus, coma, tail and

extended hydrogen cloud

Comets are essentially dirty snowballs composed of water

and other ices, silicates and organic compounds

Comet impacts may have brought substantial quantities of

water and organics to the planets


Solar nebula

Kelvin-Helmholtz

contraction

Conservation of

angular momentum


Remember: ice=

methane, ammonia,

water, carbon dioxide


dust

Chemical and electric forces

then

gravity

Planetesimals (~1 km )

chondrules

protoplanets

World-shattering collisions

planets

Total >400 million years


simulation

Terrestrial planets

Jovian planets: outer regions and bigger!



How could an alien from a far away planet

know that there’s life on Earth?

On which planets you could stand on the surface?


Why some planets have atmosphere and others don’t?

Why Venus, Earth and Mars do not have light H, He in atmosphere?

v

2

“average” velocity of a gas particle

The distribution is broad

http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Balloon/

Look here for a demo:


Potential energy

Calculate escape velocity….: example of a rocket:

if kinetic energy is smaller than the potential energy,

rocket can’t escape Earth gravity, if it is larger it can

By setting Kinetic energy=potential energy you can compute the

escape velocity

Exercise….


Antares (Scorpio): mass loss star


Density and average density.

3

Surface rocks on earth: 3000 Kg/m

3

Average density: 5000 Kg/m

Hints to formation history…


jets

T-Tauri wind


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