Lecture 6: The origin of the solar system. Terrestrial. vs. Jovian. planets. Heavy elements (Fe,Mg,Si..). Terrestrial:. Got rocks, volcanoes, craters. Can stand on surface. smaller. Closer to the Sun. hotter. H, He. Jovian:. Mainly gas…. Bigger. Outer part of solar system. colder.
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Got rocks, volcanoes, craters
Can stand on surface
Closer to the Sun
Outer part of solar system
Pluto is a bit of an exception
Go there and get samples….
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus, Neptun, Pluto
Where have we (humans)landed?
Where have we sent unmanned spacecrafts/probes to land?
Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter,Titan
Where have we sent spacecrafts to “fly by”?
All except Pluto
Hints to formation of the solar system?
rocky objects in solar system
The first asteroid was discovered in 1801:
Ceres – 940 km in diameter
There may be more than 1,000,000 asteroids > 1 km
The main Asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter
show a tail as they approach the Sun
Comets fall into two main classes:
- Short period comets (P<200 yr). Source: Kuiper belt
- Long period comets (P>1000 yr). Source: Oort Cloud
The main parts of a comet are the nucleus, coma, tail and
extended hydrogen cloud
Comets are essentially dirty snowballs composed of water
and other ices, silicates and organic compounds
Comet impacts may have brought substantial quantities of
water and organics to the planets
water, carbon dioxide
Chemical and electric forces
Planetesimals (~1 km )
Total >400 million years
Jovian planets: outer regions and bigger!
know that there’s life on Earth?
On which planets you could stand on the surface?
Why Venus, Earth and Mars do not have light H, He in atmosphere?
“average” velocity of a gas particle
The distribution is broad
Look here for a demo:
Calculate escape velocity….: example of a rocket:
if kinetic energy is smaller than the potential energy,
rocket can’t escape Earth gravity, if it is larger it can
By setting Kinetic energy=potential energy you can compute the
Surface rocks on earth: 3000 Kg/m
Average density: 5000 Kg/m
Hints to formation history…