What low-energy beta-beams can tell about supernova physics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. What low-energy beta-beams can tell about supernova physics N. Jachowicz, G.C. McLaughlin and C. Volpe Ghent University, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Gent, Belgium natalie.jachowicz@UGent.be

  2. In a type II supernova, a massive star at the end of its life -undergoes gravitational collapse - a shockwave develops - travels outward, and the shock wave blows away the outer layers of the star …. ? Introduction What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  3. weak interactions are important neutrinos are produced in the neutronization processes characterizing the gravitational collapse neutrinos are responsible for the cooling of the proto-neutron star neutrinos might reheat the stalled shock wave and cause a delayed explosion What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics In the supernova process : Observing the neutrinos from a future (Galactic) supernova explosion might learn a lot about the processes going on in the center of the star and the dynamics of the supernova im&explosion H.-T. Janka astro-ph/0008432 Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  4. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Terrestrial detection of supernova neutrinos : • neutrinos are escaping from the center of the star • carrying away the largest part of the energy • Superkamiokande, SNO, OMNIS, LAND, LENA • Target material : e-, 16O, D, 56Fe, 208Pb, 12C Neutrino-nucleus reactions provide an interesting detection mechanism : SuperKamiokande SNO • relatively large cross sections • thresholds in supernova-neutrino energy-region Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  5. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Refs: N. Jachowicz, K. Vantournhout, J. Ryckebusch, K. Heyde, PRL 93, 082501 (2004) ; N. Jachowicz, K. Vantournhout, J. Ryckebusch, K. Heyde, PRC71, 034604 (2005). From the signal in the detector, one can learn about : • arrival times • neutrino flavor • neutrinos vs antineutrinos • energy information • black hole formation • neutrino masses • charge-exchange vs neutral-current reactions • charge of the outgoing lepton in charged-current reactions • spin of the outgoing nucleon in neutral-current • nucleon-knockout reactions • threshold differences between different nuclei • 1 nucleon vs 2 nucleon knockout Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  6. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics 208Pb N.J. et al, PRC66, 065501 (2002) ; E. Kolbe et al, PRC63, 025802 (2001) ; J. Engel et al, PRD67, 013005 (2001) The interpretation of the supernova signal can only be as good as the understanding of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that occurs in the detector • little experimental data is available • very small cross sections • no monochromatic neutrino beams Uncertainties : • one has to rely on theoretical predictions, • uncertainties induced by model dependence Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  7. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Supernova neutrino spectra : Experimentally : Michel spectra : Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  8. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Beta-beam neutrino spectra : 18Ne • β-decay of a primary boosted nuclear beam generates intense neutrino beams, • with average energy and precise shape of the spectrum determined by the boost factor γ of the primary beam • First proposed to produce high energy neutrinos in oscillation experiments • (P.Zuchelli, Phys.Lett.B 532, 166 (2002). • At lower gamma factor, the neutrino energy becomes very suitable for neutrino-nucleus • scattering investigations • (C. Volpe, J.Phys. G30, 1 (2004). Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  9. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Cross section as a function of the boost factor γ of the beam Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  10. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Procedure : • linear combinations of normalized beta-beam spectra : • fitting the constructed energy distribution to the supernova-neutrino spectrum by minimizing the expression, • varying the expansion parameters ai and the boost factors γi Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  11. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Total folded cross sections : • 16O : CRPA calculation • deuteron : S. Nakamura, T. Sato, S. Ando et al., • Nucl. Phys. A 707 (2002) Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  12. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Differential folded cross section : determines signal in the detector : energy transfer and excitation energy of the target nucleus indicate the decay products that will be observed in the detector Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  13. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics 16O … differential folded cross sections Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  14. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics 2D … differential folded cross sections Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  15. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics 208Pb … differential folded cross sections Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  16. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics 16O … differential folded cross sections –multipole contributions Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  17. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics This very satisfying agreement suggests that it is possible to reconstruct supernova-neutrino signal using the results of the beta-beam measurement without going through the intermediate step of using a nuclear structure calculation • For each set of beta-beam data at a given g, there will be a measured response in the detector • Taking appropriate linear combinations of the measured response provides a very accurate picture of the response of the detector to an incoming supernova-neutrino spectrum Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  18. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Energy ‘resolution’ Width ‘resolution’ Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  19. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Reconstructing the supernova neutrino spectrum ? Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  20. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Inversion of the method : reconstructing the supernova neutrino energy spectrum Supernova neutrino signal in a terrestrial detector Fit with linear combination of beta beam responses : aγi, γi Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  21. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics ? Inversion of the method - test Starting from a power-law supernova neutrino spectrum , we determine the best fit to this spectrum : Adding noise to the expansion parameters mimicks the effect of various sources of uncertainties : { 0.05 0.10 Noise : ai→ (1+ ) ai We than check wich power law spectrum yields the best fit to Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  22. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Inversion of the method – reconstruction in terms of average energy and width of the spectrum curves : 90% confidence levels for spectra with 5 and 10 % uncertainty on the expansion parameters Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  23. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics … Neutrinos are oscillating ! Very schematically, the emitted supernova neutrino spectrum can be written as a combination of a ‘low’ energy and a ‘high’ energy component : In a terrestrial detector, neutral current reactions are accessible for both components, the neutral current signal looks like : In a terrestrial detector, only supernova electron neutrinos can produce a massive lepton, the charged current signal looks like : Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  24. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics In a first step the 2 combinations of beta-beam data that produce the best fit to the neutral current signal are determined : are selected to minimize the difference between and In a second step these synthetic spectra are used to determine the oscillation parameters Rfit and Ifit that yield the best agreement with the charged current signal : Rfit and Ifit are selected to minimize the difference between and Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  25. What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics … Neutrinos are oscillating : determining Rfit and Ifit Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007

  26. We take linear combinations of low-energy beta-beam spectra, and fit those to supernova-neutrino energy-spectra , thus building ‘synthetic’ supernova spectra the corresponding differential cross sections are in very good agreement This technique can be inverted to reconstruct the parameters of the supernova neutrino spectrum and learn about the oscillation characteristics of supernova neutrinos The agreement is so good, we propose low-energy beta-beams as a ‘direct’ way to measure the nuclear response to a supernova neutrino signal and obtain information about the supernova neutrino spectrum and supernova neutrino oscillations Conclusions What low-energy beta beams can tell about supernova physics Natalie JachowiczECT*, Trento, June 28 2007