Physical Examination. Clinical Signs. Low Back. One of the Simplest and most effective tests of nerve root irritation Compare with bent knee Elevate and measure angle in degrees Purpose To provoke a dural or root sign Positive Response Extra-segmental reference of pain (dural)
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Compare with bent knee
Elevate and measure angle in degrees Purpose
To provoke a dural or root sign
Extra-segmental reference of pain (dural)
Segmental reference of pain (root)
Flex hip while maintaining knee extension
Amplify response by dorsiflexing ankle and/or flexing neck
This test is biased toward the lower part of the lumbo-sacral plexus (L4 - S1)
A crossed leg (opposite leg) response may indicate disk bulge medial to the opposite side root
.Straight Leg raise
Supraspinatus examination ("empty can" test). The patient attempts to elevate the arms against resistance while the elbows are extended, the arms are abducted and the thumbs are pointing downward.