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Microbial Metabolism. Chapter 5. Metabolism - all of the chemical reactions within a living organism. 1. Catabolism ( Catabolic ) breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler compounds releases ENERGY 2. Anabolism ( Anabolic )

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metabolism all of the chemical reactions within a living organism
Metabolism - all of the chemical reactions within a living organism
  • 1. Catabolism ( Catabolic )
    • breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler compounds
    • releases ENERGY
  • 2. Anabolism ( Anabolic )
    • the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
    • requires ENERGY
enzymes catalysts that speed up and direct chemical reactions
Enzymes - catalysts thatspeed up and direct chemical reactions
  • A. Enzymes are substrate specific
    • Lipases Lipids
    • Sucrases Sucrose
    • Ureases Urea
    • Proteases Proteins
    • DNases DNA
naming of enzymes most are named by adding ase to the substrate
Naming of Enzymes - most are named by adding “ase” to the substrate
  • Sucrose Sucrase
  • Lipids Lipase
  • DNA DNase
  • Proteins Protease
  • removes a Hydrogen Dehydrogenase
  • removes a phosphate phosphotase
naming of enzymes
Naming of Enzymes
  • Grouped based on type of reaction they catalyze
  • 1. Oxidoreductases oxidation & reduction
  • 2. Hydrolases hydrolysis
  • 3. Ligases synthesis
slide7

Enzyme Components

2 Parts

1. Apoenzyme - protein portion

2. Coenzyme (cofactor) - non-protein

Holoenzyme - whole enzyme

coenzymes
Coenzymes
  • Many are derived from vitamins
  • 1. Niacin
    • NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
  • 2. Riboflavin
    • FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)
  • 3. Pantothenic Acid
    • CoEnzyme A
slide9

Factors that Influence Enzymatic Activity

Denaturation of an Active Protein

slide13

Inhibitors can effect enzymatic activity

1. Competitive Inhibitors

2. Noncompetitive Inhibitors

competitive inhibitors compete for the active site
Competitive Inhibitors -compete for the active site
  • 1. Penicillin
    • competes for the active site on the enzyme involved in the synthesis of the pentaglycine crossbridge
  • 2. Sulfanilamide (Sulfa Drugs)
    • competes for the active site on the enzyme that converts PABA into Folic Acid
      • Folic Acid - required for the synthesis of DNA and RNA

Selective Toxicity

energy production
Energy Production
  • 1. Oxidation
    • refers to the loss of Hydrogens and or electrons
  • 2. Reduction
    • the gain of Hydrogens and or electrons

NAD Cycle

carbohydrate catabolism
Carbohydrate Catabolism
  • Microorganisms oxidize carbohydrates as their primary source of energy
  • Glucose - most common energy source
  • Energy obtained from Glucose by:
    • Respiration
    • Fermentation
aerobic cellular respiration
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
  • Electrons released by oxidation are passed down an Electron Transport System with oxygen being the Final Electron Acceptor
  • General Equation:
  • Glucose + oxygen----> Carbon dioxide + water
  • ATP
chemical equation
Chemical Equation
  • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -------> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
  • 38 ADP + 38 P 38 ATP
aerobic cellular respiration1
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
  • 4 subpathways
  • 1. Glycolysis
  • 2. Transition Reaction
  • 3. Kreb’s Cycle
  • 4. Electron Transport System
1 glycolysis splitting of sugar
1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
  • Oxidation of Glucose into 2 molecules of Pyruvic acid
  • Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
  • End Products of Glycolysis:
    • 2 Pyruvic acid
    • 2 NADH2
    • 2 ATP
2 transition reaction
2. Transition Reaction
  • Connects Glycolysis to Krebs Cycle
  • End Products:
    • 2 Acetyl CoEnzyme A
    • 2 CO2
    • 2 NADH2
3 krebs cycle citric acid cycle
3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
  • Series of chemical reactions that begin and end with citric acid
  • Products:
    • 2 ATP
    • 6 NADH2
    • 2 FADH2
    • 4 CO2
4 electron transport system
4. Electron Transport System
  • Occurs within the cell membrane of Bacteria
  • Chemiosomotic Model of Mitchell
    • 34 ATP
how 34 atp from e t s 3 atp for each nadh 2 2 atp for each fadh 2
NADH2

Glycolysis 2

T. R. 2

Krebs Cycle 6

Total 10

10 x 3 = 30 ATP

FADH2

Glycolysis 0

T.R. 0

Krebs Cycle 2

Total 2

2 x 2 = 4 ATP

How 34 ATP from E.T.S. ?3 ATP for each NADH22 ATP for each FADH2
total atp production for the complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose in aerobic respiration
Total ATP production for the complete oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose in Aerobic Respiration
  • ATP
  • Glycolysis 2
  • Transition Reaction 0
  • Krebs Cycle 2
  • E.T.S. 34
  • Total 38 ATP
anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Electrons released by oxidation are passed down an E.T.S., but oxygen is not the final electron acceptor
  • Nitrate (NO3-) ----> Nitrite (NO2-)
  • Sulfate (SO24-) ----> Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • Carbonate (CO24-) -----> Methane (CH4)
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Anaerobic process that does not use the E.T.S. Usually involves the incomplete oxidation of a carbohydrate which then becomes the final electron acceptor.
  • Glycolysis - plus an additional step
slide30

Fermentation may result in numerous end products

1. Type of organism

2. Original substrate

3. Enzymes that are present and active

1 lactic acid fermenation
1. Lactic Acid Fermenation
  • Only 2 ATP
  • End Product - Lactic Acid
  • Food Spoilage
  • Food Production
    • Yogurt - Milk
    • Pickles - Cucumbers
    • Sauerkraut - Cabbage
  • 2 Genera:
    • Streptococcus
    • Lactobacillus
2 alcohol fermentation
2. Alcohol Fermentation
  • Only 2 ATP
  • End products:
    • alcohol
    • CO2
  • Alcoholic Beverages
  • Bread dough to rise
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast)
3 mixed acid fermentation
3. Mixed - Acid Fermentation
  • Only 2 ATP
  • End products - “FALSE”
  • Escherichia coli and other enterics
propionic acid fermentation
Propionic Acid Fermentation
  • Only 2 ATP
  • End Products:
    • Propionic acid
    • CO2
  • Propionibacterium sp.
photosynthesis conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy
Photosynthesis - conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy
  • Chemical energy is used to reduce CO2 to sugar (CH2O)
  • Carbon Fixation - recycling of carbon in the environment (Life as we known is dependant on this)
  • Photosynthesis
    • Green Plants
    • Algae
    • Cyanobacteria
chemical equation1
Chemical Equation
  • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight -----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
  • 2 Parts:
    • 1. Light Reaction
    • 2. Dark Reaction
light reaction
Light Reaction
  • Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation
    • O2
    • ATP
    • NADPH2
  • Light Reaction (simplified)