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Introduction. CS 515 Mobile and Wireless Networking Ibrahim Korpeoglu Computer Engineering Department Bilkent University, Ankara. Outline. Course Info Introduction What is Wireless What is PCS History of Wireless Some Mobile Statistics. Course Information. Course Details.

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introduction

Introduction

CS 515 Mobile and Wireless Networking

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

Computer Engineering Department

Bilkent University, Ankara

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline
Outline
  • Course Info
  • Introduction
    • What is Wireless
    • What is PCS
  • History of Wireless
  • Some Mobile Statistics

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

course information

Course Information

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

course details
Course Details

Instructor: Ibrahim KorpeogluEmail:korpe@cs.bilkent.edu.tr

Class Hours: Wed 15:40-16:30Fri: 13:40-15:30Office HoursThu 10:40-12:00Classroom: EA 502 (You can also come to my office at any time if you need to see me)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

recommended textbooks
Recommended Textbooks
  • Theodore Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, December 2001.
  • Yi-Bing Lin, Imrich Chlamtac, Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures, John Wiles & Sohns, 1st edition, 2000.
      • You don’t have to buy these books. But I recommend buying them if you have the opportunity!

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

reading list
Reading List
  • You will read a lot of papers in this course
  • The papers are on the course web page
    • You can download them from there.
    • If a paper is not there, let me know.
    • I will put the paper on my door if there is no online copy of the paper
  • The paper-list size on the webpage will be reduced, so that you don’t spend all of your time only on this course.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

grading
Grading
  • There will be one midterm and one final exam
  • There may be projects. I did not determine them yet.
    • Simulation or implementation projects
    • No idea how hard they will be!
    • No idea which language(s) they will be implemented on!
  • Attendance is important!

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

why projects are important
Why projects are important?
  • I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understandConfucius

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline9
Outline
  • Introduction
    • What is wireless and mobile networking
    • History of Wireless
    • Challenges of Mobile and Wireless Communication and Networking
    • What is Personal Communications Systems
      • Why there is demand on that
      • What is ubiquitous computing.
    • Overview of Wireless Technologies and Systems

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline10
Outline
  • Wireless Link Characteristics
    • Radio Propagation
    • Short and Long wave properties
    • Attenuation
    • Interfence
    • Fading and Multi-path Fading
    • Transmit power and range
    • Bit Error Rate and Models

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline11
Outline
  • Wireless Media Access
    • What is different in Wireless Media than Wireline Media
      • Why CSMA/CD does not work
      • MACA and MACAW protocols
    • TDMA and FDMA
    • CDMA

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline12
Outline
  • Handoff
      • More from telecom point view
      • How handoffs are triggered
      • How handoffs are managed
  • Routing
      • more from data networking point of view
      • How mobility affect routing for mobile hosts
      • Mobile IP

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline13
Outline
  • Transport Protocols over Wireless and Mobile Networks
      • How does wireless links and mobile hosts affect the performance and operation of transport protocols
      • Look specifically to TCP
      • There are many proposals to improve the performance of TCP over wireless links and for mobile hosts

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline14
Outline
  • Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks
      • What if the mobile hosts are not roaming around an infrastructure-based network
      • Ad-hoc networks are established spontaneounly
        • There is no infrastructure that you can rely on
        • A mobile terminal may also act as an network router
      • Routing protocols for ad-hoc networks
        • Network connectivity graph is not fixed; dynamically changes over time
        • The network elements are small-capacity, battery-powered devices

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline15
Outline
  • Looking closely to the wireless systems
    • Wireless Local Area Networks
      • 802.11 and HiperLAN Standards
    • Wireless Personal Area Networks and Home Networking
      • Bluetooth and HomeRF
    • Wide-Area Wireless Cellular Networks
      • GSM
      • CDMA
      • GPRS
      • 3G Networks

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline16
Outline
  • Wireless and Mobile Applications
    • Wireless Application Protocol
    • Mobile Applications
      • Mobile Databases
  • Quality of Service in Mobile/Wireless Networks
      • What are the challenges for providing QoS in mobile and wireless environments

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline17
Outline
  • Service and Device Discover in Mobile Networks
      • How can you discover the resources around you
      • Service Location Protocol
      • Jini
  • Power Management
      • How low-power objective affect the design of wireless systems and network protocols
      • Issues and solutions

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

outline18
Outline
  • Introduction to Peer2peer networking
    • What is peer2peer networking
    • Why client-server computing is not enough always
    • Centralized, distributed and hybrid peer2peer systems
  • Wrap up and Conclusions

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless communication
Wireless Communication
  • Transmitting voice and data using electromagnetic waves in open space
  • Electromagnetic waves
      • Travel at speed of light (c = 3x108 m/s)
      • Has a frequency (f) and wavelength (l)
          • c = f x l
      • Higher frequency means higher energy photons
      • The higher the energy photon the more penetrating is the radiation

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

104

102

100

10-2

10-4

10-6

10-8

10-10

10-12

10-14

10-16

Radio

Spectrum

Microwave

IR

UV

X-Rays

Cosmic

Rays

104

106

108

1010

1012

1014

1016

1018

1020

1022

1024

1MHz ==100m100MHz ==1m

10GHz ==1cm

Visible light

< 30 KHz VLF30-300KHz LF

300KHz – 3MHz MF3 MHz – 30MHz HF 30MHz – 300MHz VHF

300 MHz – 3GHz UHF

3-30GHz SHF

> 30 GHz EHF

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wavelength of some technologies
Wavelength of Some Technologies
  • GSM Phones:
    • frequency ~= 900 Mhz
    • wavelength ~= 33cm
  • PCS Phones
    • frequency ~= 1.8 Ghz
    • wavelength ~= 17.5 cm
  • Bluetooth:
    • frequency ~= 2.4Gz
    • wavelength ~= 12.5cm

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

frequency carries channels
Frequency Carries/Channels
  • The information from sender to receiver is carrier over a well defined frequency band.
    • This is called a channel
  • Each channel has a fixed frequency bandwidth (in KHz) and Capacity (bit-rate)
  • Different frequency bands (channels) can be used to transmit information in parallel and independently.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

example
Example
  • Assume a spectrum of 90KHz is allocated over a base frequency b for communication between stations A and B
  • Assume each channel occupies 30KHz.
  • There are 3 channels
  • Each channel is simplex (Transmission occurs in one way)
  • For full duplex communication:
    • Use two different channels (front and reverse channels)
    • Use time division in a channel

Station A

Channel 1 (b - b+30)

Station B

Channel 2 (b+30 - b+60)

Channel 3 (b+60 - b+90)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

homework 1
Homework 1
  • Read and digest the following papers!
    • M. Weiser, The Computer for the Twenty-First Century, Scientific American, Vol. 265, No. 3, (September 1991), pp. 94-104.
    • D. Cox, Wireless Personal Communications: What is It?, IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, (April 1995), pp. 20-35.
      • These papers are on the course webpage!

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

simplex communication
Simplex Communication
  • Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way.
      • This is called simplex transmision
  • To enable two-way communication (called full-duplex communication)
      • We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing
      • We can use Time Division Multiplexing

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

duplex communication fdd
Duplex Communication - FDD
  • FDD: Frequency Division Duplex

Base Station

B

Mobile Terminal

M

Forward Channel

Reverse Channel

Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency

bands

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

duplex communication tdd
Duplex Communication - TDD
  • TDD: Time Division Duplex

Base Station

B

Mobile Terminal

M

M

B

M

B

M

B

A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots alternately.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

example frequency spectrum allocation in u s cellular radio service
Example - Frequency Spectrum Allocation in U.S. Cellular Radio Service

Reverse Channel

Forward Channel

991

992

1023

1

2

799

991

992

1023

1

2

799

824-849 MHz

869-894 MHz

Channel Number

Center Frequency (MHz)

Reverse Channel 1 <=N <= 799

991 <= N <= 1023

0.030N + 825.0

0.030(N-1023) + 825.0

Forward Channel 1 <=N <= 799

991 <= N <= 1023

0.030N + 870.0

0.030(N-1023) + 870.0

(Channels 800-990 are unused)

Channel bandwidth is 45 MHz

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

what is mobility
What is Mobility
  • Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static
      • No change of location during a call/connection
      • A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location
  • Mobility and portability
    • Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline
    • Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

degrees of mobility
Degrees of Mobility
  • Walking Users
      • Low speed
      • Small roaming area
      • Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access
  • Vehicles
      • High speeds
      • Large roaming area
      • Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access
      • Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

the need for wireless mobile networking
The Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking
  • Demand for Ubiquitous Computing
    • Anywhere, anytime computing and communication
      • You don’t have to go to the lab to check your email
    • Pushing the computers more into background
      • Focus on the task and life, not on the computer
      • Use computers seamlessly to help you and to make your life more easier.
    • Computers should be location aware
      • Adapt to the current location, discover services

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

some example applications of ubiquitous computing
Some Example Applications of Ubiquitous Computing
  • You walk into your office and your computer automatically authenticates you through your active badge and logs you into the Unix system
  • You go to a foreign building and your PDA automatically discovers the closest public printer where you can print your schedule and give to your friend

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

more examples
More Examples
  • You walk into a Conference room or a shopping Mall with your PDA and your PDA is smart enough to collect and filter the public profiles of other people that are passing nearby
        • Of course other people should also have smart PDAs.
  • The cows in a village are equipped with GPS and GPRS devices and they are monitored from a central location on a digital map.
        • No need for a person to guide and feed them
  • You can find countless examples

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

how to realize ubiquitous computing
How to realize Ubiquitous Computing
  • Small and different size computing and communication devices
    • Tabs, pads, boards
    • PDAs, Handhelds, Laptops, Cell-phones
  • A communication network to support this
    • Anywhere, anytime access
    • Seamless, wireless and mobile access
    • Need for Personal Communication Services (PCS)
  • Ubiquitous Applications
    • New software

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

what is pcs
What is PCS
  • Personal Communication Services
    • A wide variety of network services that includes wireless access and personal mobility services
    • Provided through a small terminal
    • Enables communication at any time, at any place, and in any form.
  • The market for such services is tremendously big
    • Think of cell-phone market

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

several pcs systems
Several PCS systems
  • High-tier Systems
    • GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications
      • The mobile telephony system that we are using
    • IS-136
      • USA digital cellular mobile telephony system
      • TDMA based multiple access
    • Personal Digital Cellular
    • IS-95 cdmaOne System
      • CDMA based multiple access

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

several pcs systems39
Several PCS systems
  • Low-tier systems
    • Residential, business and public cordless access applications and systems
      • Cordless Telephone 2 (CT2)
      • Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone (DECT)
      • Personal Access Communication Systems (PACS)
      • Personal Handy Telephone System (PHS)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

several pcs systems40
Several PCS systems
  • Wideband wireless systems
    • For Internet access and multimedia transfer
      • Cdma2000
      • W-CDMA, proposed by Europe
      • SCDMA, proposed by Chine/Europe

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

several pcs systems41
Several PCS systems
  • Other PCS Systems
    • Special data systems
      • CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data
      • RAM Mobile Data
      • Advanced Radio Data Information System (ARDIS)
    • Paging Systems
    • Mobile Satellite Systems
      • LEO, MEO, HEO satellites for data/voice
    • ISM band systems: Bluetooth, 802.11, etc.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

pcs problems
PCS Problems
  • How to integrate mobile and wireless users to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) (Voice Network)
      • Cellular mobile telephony system
  • How to integrate mobile and wireless users to the Internet (Data Network)
      • Mobile IP, DHCP, Cellular IP
  • How to integrate all of them together and also add multimedia services (3G Systems)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

looking to pcs from different angles
Looking to PCS from different Angles

Internet

PSTN

(Telephone Network)

Wireless Access

  • Mobile Users
  • Laptop users
  • Pocket PC users
  • Mobile IP, DHCP enabled computers
  • Mobile Users
  • Cell phone users
  • Cordless phone users

Telecom People View

Data Networking People View

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

what does this course cover
What does this course cover?
  • This course will cover the problems/solutions in the telecommunication domain and also in the data networking domain
      • Mobile IP (data)
      • TCP over Wireless (data)
      • GSM, GPRS, CDMA (telecom)
  • We will also cover some fundamental problems/solutions for wireless access
      • Wireless channel characteristics
      • Recovering from errors
      • Wireless media access

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

telecom and data networking
Telecom and Data Networking

Telecom Interest

Data Networking Interest

  • - Voice Transmission
  • - Frequency Reuse
  • Handoff Management
  • Location Tracking
  • Roaming
  • QoS
  • GSM, CDMA, Cordless Phones,
  • GPRS, EDGE
  • Data Transmission
  • Mobile IP (integrating mobile hosts to internet)
  • Ad-hoc Networks
  • TCP over Wireless
  • Service Discovery
  • Radio Propagation
  • Link Characteristics
  • Error Models
  • -Wireless Medium
  • Access (MAC)
  • - Error Control

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

very basic cellular pcs architecture
Very Basic Cellular/PCS Architecture

Mobility

Database

Public Switched

Telephone Network

Base Station

Controller

Mobile

Switching

Center

(MSC)

Radio Network

Base Station

(BS)

Mobile Station

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless system definitions
Wireless System Definitions
  • Mobile Station
      • A station in the cellular radio service intended for use while in motion at unspecified locations. They can be either hand-held personal units (portables) or installed on vehicles (mobiles)
  • Base station
      • A fixed station in a mobile radio system used for radio communication with the mobile stations. Base stations are located at the center or edge of a coverage region. They consists of radio channels and transmitter and receiver antennas mounted on top of a tower.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless system definitions48
Wireless System Definitions
  • Mobile Switching Center
      • Switching center which coordinates the routing of calls in a large service area. In a cellular radio system, the MSC connections the cellular base stations and the mobiles to the PSTN (telephone network). It is also called Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO)
  • Subscriber
      • A user who pays subscription charges for using a mobile communication system
  • Transceiver
      • A device capable of simultaneously transmitting and receiving radio signals

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless system definitions49
Wireless System Definitions
  • Control Channel
      • Radio channel used for transmission of call setup, call request, call initiation and other beacon and control purposes.
  • Forward Channel
      • Radio channel used for transmission of information from the base station to the mobile
  • Reverse Channel
      • Radio channel used for transmission of information from mobile to base station

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless system definitions50
Wireless System Definitions
  • Simplex Systems
      • Communication systems which provide only one-way communication
  • Half Duplex Systems
      • Communication Systems which allow two-way communication by using the same radio channel for both transmission and reception. At any given time, the user can either transmit or receive information.
  • Full Duplex Systems
      • Communication systems which allow simultaneous two-way communication. Transmission and reception is typically on two different channels (FDD).

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

wireless system definitions51
Wireless System Definitions
  • Handoff
      • The process of transferring a mobile station from one channel or base station to an other.
  • Roamer
      • A mobile station which operates in a service area (market) other than that from which service has been subscribed.
  • Page
      • A brief message which is broadcast over the entire service area, usually in simulcast fashion by many base stations at the same time.

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

pcs systems classification
PCS Systems Classification
  • Cordless Telephones
  • Cellular Telephony (High-tier)
  • Wide Area Wireless Data Systems (High-tier)
  • High Speed Local and Personal Area Networks
  • Paging Messaging Systems
  • Satellite Based Mobile Systems
  • 3G Systems

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cordless telephones
Cordless Telephones

PSTN

Telephone

Network

Base unit

Cordless

Phone

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cordless telephones56
Cordless Telephones
  • Characterized by
    • Low mobility (in terms of range and speed)
    • Low power consumption
    • Two-way tetherless (wireless) voice communication
    • High circuit quality
    • Low cost equipment, small form factor and long talk-time
    • No handoffs between base units
  • Appeared as analog devices
  • Digital devices appeared later with CT2, DECT standards in Europe and ISM band technologies in USA

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cordless telephones57
Cordless Telephones
  • Usage
    • At homes
    • At public places where cordless phone base units are available
  • Design Choices
    • Few users per MHz
    • Few users per base unit
      • Many base units are connected to only one handset
    • Large number of base units per usage area
    • Short transmission range

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cordless phone
Cordless Phone
  • Some more features
    • 32 Kb/s adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM) digital speech encoding
    • Tx power <= 10 mW
    • Low-complexity radio signal processing
        • No forward error correction (FEC) or whatsoever.
    • Low transmission delay < 50ms
    • Simple Frequency Shift Modulation (FSK)
    • Time Division Duplex (TDD)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cellular telephony
Cellular Telephony
  • Characterized by
    • High mobility provision
    • Wide-range
    • Two-way tetherless voice communication
    • Handoff and roaming support
    • Integrated with sophisticated public switched telephone network (PSTN)
    • High transmit power requires at the handsets (~2W)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cellular telephony systems
Cellular Telephony Systems
  • Mobile users and handsets
    • Very complex circuitry and design
  • Base stations
    • Provides gateway functionality between wireless and wireline links
    • ~1 million dollar
  • Mobile switching centers
    • Connect cellular system to the terrestrial telephone network

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

mobile systems market
Mobile Systems Market
  • Ericsson sells half of the mobile base stations
      • 1 base station ~ 100 thousand - 1 million dollar
  • Nokia has the biggest market in cell-phones
      • 1 cell-phone ~ 100 dollar
  • Nokia has to sell 10,000 cell-phones to match the revenue Ericsson obtains from selling just one base-station!

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cellular networks
Cellular Networks
  • First Generation
      • Analog Systems
      • Analog Modulation, mostly FM
      • AMPS
      • Voice Traffic
      • FDMA/FDD multiple access
  • Second Generation (2G)
      • Digital Systems
      • Digital Modulation
      • Voice Traffic
      • TDMA/FDD and CDMA/FDD multiple access
  • 2.5G
      • Digital Systems
      • Voice + Low-datarate Data
  • Third Generation
      • Digital
      • Voice + High-datarate Data
      • Multimedia Transmission also

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

2g technologies
2G Technologies

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

2g and data
2G and Data
  • 2G is developed for voice communications
  • You can send data over 2G channels by using modem
  • Provides adat rates in the order of ~9.6 Kbps
  • Increased data rates are requires for internet application
  • This requires evolution towards new systems: 2.5 G

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

2 5 technologies
2.5 Technologies
  • Evolution of TDMA Systems
    • HSCSD for 2.5G GSM
        • Up to 57.6 Kbps data-rate
    • GPRS for GSM and IS-136
        • Up to 171.2 Kbps data-rate
    • EDGE for 2.5G GSM and IS-136
        • Up to 384 Kbps data-rate
  • Evolution of CDMA Systems
    • IS-95B
        • Up to 64 Kbps

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

3g systems
3G Systems
  • Goals
    • Voice and Data Transmission
      • Simultanous voice and data access
    • Multi-megabit Internet access
      • Interactive web sessions
    • Voice-activated calls
    • Multimedia Content
      • Live music

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

3g systems69
3G Systems
  • Evolution of Systems
      • CDMA sysystem evaolved to CDMA2000
          • CDMA2000-1xRTT: Upto 307 Kbps
          • CDMA2000-1xEV:
          • CDMA2000-1xEVDO: upto 2.4 Mbps
          • CDMA2000-1xEVDV: 144 Kbps datarate
      • GSM, IS-136 and PDC evolved to W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA) (also called UMTS)
          • Up to 2.048 Mbps data-rates
          • Future systems 8Mbps
          • Expected to be fully deployed by 2010-2015
      • New spectrum is allocated for these technologies

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

interest to 3g applications
Interest to 3G Applications

Western Eastern USA Europe Europe Emails 4.5 4.7 4.3 City maps/directions 4.3 4.2 4.2 Latest news 4.0 4.4 4.0 Authorize/enable payment 3.4 3.8 3.0 Banking/trading online 3.5 3.4 3.2 Downloading music 3.1 3.4 3.2 Shopping/reservation 3.0 3.1 2.9 Animated images 2.4 2.7 2.6 Chat rooms, forums 2.3 2.9 2.2 Interactive games 2.0 2.2 2.4 Games for money 1.8 1.8 1.8

(Means based upon a six-point interest scale, where 6 indicates high interest and 1 indicates low interest.)

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

upgrade paths for 2g technologies
Upgrade Paths for 2G Technologies

2G

IS-95

GSM

IS-136PDC

2.5G

GPRS

HSCSD

IS-95B

EDGE

3G

cdma200-1xRTT

W-CDMA

EDGE

cdma2000-1xEV,DV,DO

TD-SCDMA

cdma200-3xRTT

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

gsm subscriber growth
GSM Subscriber Growth

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

cdma subscriber growth
CDMA Subscriber Growth

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

gsm networks in turkey
GSM Networks in Turkey

Network SystemGPRS HSCSDFrequency-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Aria GSM Live (March 2002) no 1800

Aycell GSM no no 1800

Telsim GSM Live (Aug. 2000) no 900

Turkcell GSM Live (March 2001) soon 900

Number of Subscribers (Nov 2001)

Turkcell: 6,800,900

Telsim: 2,800,000

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

coverage map turkcell
Coverage Map - Turkcell

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

coverage map telsim
Coverage Map - Telsim

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

coverage map aria
Coverage Map - Aria

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

coverage map aycell
Coverage Map - Aycell

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

mobile phone market share
Mobile Phone Market Share
  • 1st Quarter of 2002
    • Nokia 34.7%
    • Motorola 15.5%
    • Samsung 9.6%
    • Siemens 8.8%
    • Sony-Ericsson 6.4%

Ibrahim Korpeoglu

some mobile statistics june 2002
Total Global Mobile Users: 860m

Total Analog Users: 71m

Total US Mobile Users: 137.5m

Total GSM Users: 669m

Total TDMA Users: 84m

Total European Users: 279m

Global Montly SMSs/User: 36

SMS Sent in 2001: 102.9 billion

GSM Countries on Air: 171

#1 Mobile Country: China

#1 GSM Country: China

#1 SMS Country: Phillipines

#1 Cell Phone Vendor: Nokia

#1 Network in Europa: T-Mobil

#1 Network in Japan: DoCoMo

#1 Telecom Infrastructure Company: Ericsson

Some Mobile Statistics – June 2002

Ibrahim Korpeoglu