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Integumentary System. Cutaneous membrane (skin) – our largest organ Accounts for 7% of body weight Divided into two distinct layers Epidermis Dermis Accessory structures Subcutaneous layer ( hypodermis ). Functions Of The Integument. Cushions and insulates deeper organs

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integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Cutaneous membrane (skin) – our largest organ
    • Accounts for 7% of body weight
    • Divided into two distinct layers
      • Epidermis
      • Dermis
      • Accessory structures
  • Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
functions of the integument
Functions Of The Integument
  • Cushions and insulates deeper organs
  • Protects body from abrasion, trauma, chemicals, pathogens, temperature extremes and UV rays
  • Excretion and secretion
  • Contains sensory receptors associated with nerve endings
  • Synthesis and storage of nutrients (vitamin D3)
integumentary structures
Integumentary Structures
  • Components of the Integumentary System

Figure 5-1

the epidermis four main cell types
The Epidermis- Four Main Cell Types
  • Melanocytes - found in basal layer, manufacture and secrete pigment
  • Merkel cells - basal layer, attached to sensory nerve endings
  • Keratinocytes – Arise from deepest layer of epidermis to stratum spinosum
    • Produce keratin – a tough fibrous protein
    • Produce antibodies and enzymes
    • Keratinocytes are dead at skin's surface
  • Langerhans cells - stratum spinosum, part of immune system macrophage-like
the epidermis
The Epidermis
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Several distinct cell layers
    • Thick skin—five layers on palms and soles
    • Thin skin—four layers on rest of body
layers of the epidermis
Layers of The Epidermis
  • Stratum corneum
    • Most superficial layer
    • Dead, flattened (squamous) cells
    • Abundant keratin - Keratinized (cornified) tough, water-resistant protein
    • Protects skin against abrasion and penetration
  • Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
    • Occurs only in thick skin – palms and soles
    • Composed of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes
layers of the epidermis8
Layers of The Epidermis
  • Stratum granulosum (grainy layer)
    • Consists of keratinocytes
      • Tonofilaments
      • Keratohyaline granules – help form keratin
      • Lamellated granules – contain a waterproofing glycolipid
  • Stratum spinosum (spiny layer)
    • “Spiny” appearance caused by artifacts of histological preparation
    • Contains thick bundles of intermediate filaments (tonofilaments)
      • Resist tension
      • Contain protein prekeratin
    • Contains star-shaped Langerhans cells
layers of the epidermis9
Layers of the Epidermis
  • Stratum basale
    • Deepest layer of epidermis
    • Attached to underlying dermis
    • Stem cells actively divide
    • Merkel cells – associated with sensory nerve ending
    • Melanocytes – secrete the pigment melanin
sources of skin color
Sources of Skin Color
  • Melanocytes
    • Make melanin from tyrosine
    • Melanin provides UV protection
    • Gives reddish-brown to brown-black color
  • Carotene
    • Contributes orange-yellow color
    • Provided from diet (carrots and tomatoes)
  • Hemoglobin - blood pigment
    • Caucasian skin contains little melanin
    • Allows crimson color of blood to show through
  • Second major layer of the skin
  • Provides mechanical strength, flexibility, and protection for underlying tissues
  • Highly vascular and contains a variety of sensory receptors that provide information about the external environment
  • Two layers
    • Papillary layer – includes dermal papillae
    • Reticular layer - deeper layer – 80% of thickness of dermis
  • Flexure lines - creases on palms
layers of the dermis
Layers of the Dermis
  • Papillary layer
    • Underlies epidermis
    • Named for dermal papillae
    • Aerolar connective tissue
    • Supports, nourishes epidermis
    • Provides sensory nerves, lymphatics, and capillaries
  • Reticular layer
    • Tough, dense, fibrous layer
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • Collagen fibers - limit stretch
    • Elastic fibers - provide flexibility
    • Blends into papillary layer (above)
    • Blends into subcutaneous layer (below)
dermal components
Dermal Components
  • Epidermal accessory organs
  • Cells of connective tissues proper
  • Communication with other organ systems
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Nervous
      • Sensation
      • Control of blood flow and secretion
subcutaneous layer hypodermis
Subcutaneous Layer - Hypodermis
  • Composed of loose connective tissue - areolar and adipose
  • Stabilizes skin position
    • Loosely attached to dermis
    • Loosely attached to muscle
  • Contains many fat cells
    • Provides thermal insulation
    • Cushions underlying organs
  • Safely receives hypodermic needles
  • Filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles
  • Contains hard keratin which is tougher and more durable than soft keratin of the skin
  • Chief parts of a hair
    • Root – imbedded in the skin
    • Shaft – projects above skin's surface
  • Hair Shaft organized into three concentric layers
    • Medulla – central core
    • Cortex – surrounds medulla
    • Cuticle – outermost layer
  • Pigmented by melanocytes at the base of the hair
hair follicle
Hair Follicle
  • Root sheath extending from the epidermal surface into the dermis
  • Deep end is expanded forming a hair bulb
  • Papilla - nipple-shaped indentation with blood vessels and nerves   
  • Matrix - germinal layer of cells (actively dividing cells) right above the papilla
  • A knot of sensory nerve endings (a root hair plexus) wraps around each hair bulb
  • Bending a hair stimulates these endings, hence our hairs act as sensitive touch receptors
  • Arrector pili muscle - bundle of smooth muscle contracts to make hair stand erect
hair function and distribution
Hair Function and Distribution
  • Functions of hair include:
    • Helping to maintain warmth
    • Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin
    • Guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight
  • Hair is distributed over the entire skin surface except
    • Palms, soles, and lips
    • Nipples and portions of the external genitalia
sebaceous glands oil glands
Sebaceous Glands (oil glands)
  • Occur over entire body - Except palms and soles
  • Simple alveolar glands
    • Holocrine secretion – entire cell breaks up to form secretion
    • Secretes an oily substance called sebum
    • Most are associated with a hair follicle
  • Functions of sebum
    • Softens and lubricates hair and skin
    • Skin waterproofing
    • Collects dirt
sweat sudoriferous glands
Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands
  • Two types:
  • Eccrine (Merocrine)
    • Most abundant sweat gland
    • “True sweat”
      • 99% water with some salts
      • Contains traces of metabolic wastes ~ 2% urea
    • Role in thermoregulation
    • Widely present in skin (up to 500/cm2)
  • Apocrine
    • Odorous secretion
    • Absent before puberty
    • Present in axillary, areolar, anal and genital areas
  • Scalelike modification of epidermis made of hard keratin
  • Parts of the nail
    • Free edge
    • Body - dense mass of keratinized cells
    • Root
    • Nail folds
    • Eponychium – cuticle
skin injury and repair
Skin Injury and Repair
  • Four Stages in Skin Healing
    • Inflammation
      • Blood flow increases
      • Phagocytes attracted
    • Scab formation
    • Cell division and migration
    • Scar formation
skin injury and repair28

Bleeding occurs at the site of injury immediately after the injury, and mast cells in the region trigger an inflammatory response.

After several hours, a scab has formed and cells of the stratum germinativum are migrating along the edges of the wound. Phagocytic cells are removing debris, and more of these cells are arriving with the enhanced circulation

in the area. Clotting around the edges

of the affected area partially isolates

the region.














Skin Injury and Repair
skin injury and repair29

After several weeks, the scab has been shed, and the epidermis is complete. A shallow depression marks the injury site, but fibroblasts in the dermis continue to create scar tissue that will gradually elevate the overlying epidermis.

One week after the injury, the scab has been undermined by epidermal cells migrating over the meshwork produced by fibroblast activity. Phagocytic activity around the site has almost ended, and the fibrin clot is disintegrating.




Skin Injury and Repair
aging of the skin
Aging of the Skin
  • Major Age-Related Changes
    • Injury and infection increase
    • Immune cells decrease
    • Sun protection diminishes
    • Skin becomes dry, scaly
    • Hair thins, grays
    • Sagging, wrinkles occur
    • Heat loss decreases
    • Repair slows
effects of uv radiation
Effects of UV Radiation
  • Beneficial effect - activates synthesis of vitamin D3
  • Harmful effects
    • Sun burn
    • Wrinkles, premature aging
    • Malignantmelanoma
    • Basal cellcarcinoma
types and growth of hair
Types and Growth of Hair
  • Vellus hairs
    • Body hairs of women and children
  • Terminal hairs
    • Hair of scalp
    • Axillary and pubic area (at puberty)
  • Hair thinning and baldness
    • Due to aging
    • Male pattern baldness
  • Classified by severity
    • First-degree burn – only upper epidermis is damaged
    • Second-degree burn – upper part of dermis is also damaged
      • Blisters appear
      • Skin heals with little scarring
    • Third-degree burn
      • Consume thickness of skin
      • Burned area appears white, red, or blackened
skin cancer
Skin Cancer
  • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Least malignant and most common
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
  • Melanoma
    • A cancer of melanocytes
    • The most dangerous type of skin cancer
skin cancer37
Skin Cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Basal cellcarcinoma


Figure 5.12

the skin throughout life
The Skin Throughout Life
  • Epidermis
    • Develops from embryonic ectoderm
  • Dermis and hypodermis
    • Develop from mesoderm
  • Melanocytes
    • Develop from neural crest cells
the skin throughout life39
The Skin Throughout Life
  • Fetal skin
    • Well formed after the fourth month
    • At 5-6 months
      • The fetus is covered with lanugo (downy hairs)
    • Fetal sebaceous glands produce vernix caseosa
the skin throughout life40
The Skin Throughout Life
  • Middle to old age
    • Skin thins and becomes less elastic
    • Shows harmful effects of environmental damage
    • Skin inflammations become more common