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Groupthink. When group members striving for agreement (norm for unanimity), fail to realistically appraise alternative courses of action A means for a group to protect its positive image (extremely high in cohesion). Groupthink video. Identify factors that may lead to groupthink

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groupthink
Groupthink
  • When group members striving for agreement (norm for unanimity), fail to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
    • A means for a group to protect its positive image (extremely high in cohesion)
groupthink video
Groupthink video
  • Identify factors that may lead to groupthink
  • Identify “symptoms” of groupthink
  • Identify methods to minimize groupthink
antecedents of groupthink
Antecedents of Groupthink
  • Factors that may lead to groupthink
    • High levels of cohesion
    • Stressful decision-making context
      • External pressure
      • Tight budgets
      • Recent failures
symptoms of groupthink
Symptoms of Groupthink
  • Illusion of unanimity (false consensus)
    • Silence implies agreement
      • “I’m not going to call for a vote, I think we are all in agreement here”
      • “We’ve decided..”
        • Challenger example
  • Self-censorship
    • Not speaking up (feeling of tension caused by pressure to be silent & internally wanting to speak up)
      • “I had a few objections, but since everybody seems committed, I won’t bring them up.”
symptoms of groupthink cont
Symptoms of Groupthink (cont)
  • Illusion of invulnerability & Rationalization
    • “Our strategy has worked in the past, odds are it will again”
    • “We are the best military in the world, what do we have to worry about”
  • Mindguards
    • “No need for you to be at the meeting; I’ll summarize your concerns for the board”
ways to minimize groupthink
Ways to Minimize Groupthink
  • Avoid isolating the group
    • Bring in outside experts
      • JFK example
  • Critical evaluators / Devil’s advocate
    • Role is to question assumptions and uncontested information
  • Open climate
    • Leader invites and accepts divergent thinking
  • Avoid being directive
    • Strong leaders speak last or sometimes not at all
      • JFK example