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Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo PowerPoint Presentation
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Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo

Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo

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Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo

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  1. E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo mhb@civil.ist.utl.pt, sean@inf.puc-rio.br, rubens@inf.puc-rio.br

  2. E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers 1. Introduction 2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture 3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning 4. E-Learning Research Topics 5. Conclusion

  3. Database Technology & Applications Technology App ? X ? X ? X X X ? X X ? X X X ? X X X ? X X ? X X X ? X X X ? Digital Library Mobile DB Federated DB Models Ontology Workflow Query Processing & Opt Interface Indexing Storage GIS Business Intelligence Bioinformatics E-Learning

  4. Understand WHAT E-Learning is about!

  5. The Era of Changes Personal computers, Internet and, in particular, World Wide Web (WWW) are changing many aspects of human life and Education is no exception. E-Learning

  6. E-Learning What is e-learning? http://www.learningcircuits.org/glossary.html#E E-learning: Covers a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM.

  7. E-Learning • Another possible definition is: E-Learning is learning/teaching in the digital age where technology is used to improve it. or in other words E-Learning describes the use of any technology for learning outside the boundaries of the physical classroom and it is expected that technology will IMPROVE the learning process.

  8. Content Pedagogy Technology E-Learning = Technology + Pedagogy + Content

  9. E-Learning Designs • Many possible E-Learning designs: • e-learning is used between traditional classes to continue discussions, access resources, support learners, etc • face to face classes are replaced entirely by e-learning but other course material is delivered in the traditional way • use of mixture of media (e.g. Web; CDROM; paper; audio, etc) • courses are designed to be offered completely virtually via the Internet (no face to face contact) • etc...

  10. Learning: Time x Space Space Different Distance Same Time Same Different Traditional

  11. The Goal: No Barriers of Space and Time Computer-mediated communication technologies are unique in providing the individual with access to information resources giving him the capacity to participate in an educational process anywhere and at anytime.

  12. Overload of Heterogeneous Data E-mail Web pages Video-conference Word Processing Class Notes E-Books Learning Environments High amount of data Several kinds of media Enourmous variety of tools to support e-learning

  13. Distribution and Heterogeneity E-mail Web pages Video-conference Word Processing Class Notes E-Books Proprietary Difficult Solutions Reuse Learning Environments

  14. Learning Objects (LO) LO is any entity, digital or non digital, that can be referencede , used or reused in learning activities Geographic Information Text Documents Video Audio Software Programs Bio Information Images and Graphics Class Notes Books, papers etc Thesis, dissert Users’ interactions Bibliography,webliography Users’ navigation ...

  15. Creating and Delivering Learning Materials • As developing content is an expensive activity, emphasis is made in reuse. • Each learning activity has specific characteristics and, therefore, requires specific learning materials. • However, E-Learning requires new skills that include new methods/mechanisms for creation and delivery of learning materials. • In addition, as technology offers new opportunities for developing content, instructional design needs to adapt to the new existing possibilities.

  16. Learning Activities • The instructional design must work with learning activities such as: Round tables Role playing Ranking Brainstorming Sumaring Group investigation Know, want, learn And if? Analogies Debates Free writing Galery tours Cyber cafes Fluxograms Cases Checklists Semantic mappings Project-based learning

  17. Learning Theories • The instructional design must consider: • Learning Theories: • Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic. • Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind. • Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.

  18. Instructional Design General Chart Analyze Implement Evaluate Design Develop • The instructional design must follow guidelines:

  19. Analysis • What is the problem? • Who is the audience? • What is the learning environment?

  20. Design • What should be added in the course and how its components should be organized? • What are the strategies, techniques and tactics to be applied in order to facilitate learning? • How to sequence learning materials? • Learning theories • Instructional approaches

  21. Development • What are the more adequate medias to the elaborated plan? • What content sources and software tools will be used in the material development and course conduction? • What principles of interface project must be followed over the design and implementation?

  22. Implementation • What is the management plan to course conduction? • What strategies and tactics must be applied to keep the learner interest even over distance? • How to monitor results? The course meets the plan requirements?

  23. Evaluation • Is the course effective? • What are the results of the formative evaluation? • What are the results of the additive evaluation? • How can the course be improved? • How the benefits to the organization will be measured?

  24. Then • Technology has great impact in learning... • And All these (and other) learning/education characteristics must be considered... • ... So, why not to improve learning through new database research and technology?

  25. Objective E-learning content This Tutorial presents the new challenges raised by the e-Learning application area to the database research community

  26. E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers 1. Introduction 2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture 3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning 4. E-Learning Research Topics 5. Conclusion

  27. Learning over the Web The trend is: Web-Learning

  28. Digital Library Evolution Geographic Information Text Documents Video Audio Software Programs Bio Information Images and Graphics Static => Dynamic => Interative & Collaborative 2D, 3D, VR, CAT Books, papers, articles, reports etc Speech, Music Users’ navigation Class Notes , bibliography, webliography Genome Human, animal, plant ... Models Simulations Thesis, dissertation Users’ interactions (Aerial) Photos

  29. Integration or Distributed Search? Application 2 Application M Application 3 Application 1 Integrated View / Search & Use View Site 1 LOs Management Site 2 LOs Management LOs Management Site 4 Site 3 Site N LOs Management LOs Management

  30. buyer “Future” Present E-Commerce Services Distance Educationusing E-commerce Infra-structure Globalization of education seller E-Commerceinfra-structure Internet Increasing costs of conventional education Just-in-time,on-the-job education Rapidlychanging content Move towarddigital libraries Lifelong learning Global networkconnectivity and access,information mobility • Web Enabled Courses • learners • teacher • tutors • ……. DataCommunication ComputerTechnology DocumentTechnology Convergence of digital technologies

  31. Example of E-commerce Architecture

  32. IEEE LTSA Architecture

  33. IEEE LTSA System Components

  34. IEEE LTSA Operational Components and Interoperability

  35. E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers 1. Introduction 2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture 3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning 4. E-Learning Research Topics 5. Conclusion

  36. The importance of having Standards for Learning Technology • Accredited standards assure that content will be more: • accessible, • interoperable, • reusable • and durable. • As standards have a great economic impact there are now many standardization efforts done not only by official certification bodies but also by consortia of educational, commercial and governmental organizations, technical committees, etc.

  37. IMS • IMS http://www.imsproject.org/ • The IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. is a global coalition of academic, commercial and government organizations that is developing and promoting open specifications for facilitating online distributed learning activities.

  38. ARIADNE • ARIADNE http://www.ariadne-eu.org/main.html • ARIADNE Foundation is focused on the development of tools and methodologies for producing, managing and reusing computer-based pedagogical elements and telematics supported training curricula.

  39. Dublin Core • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) http://dublincore.org/ • DC Education Working Group http://dublincore.org/groups/education/ • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an open forum engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models. • DC Education Working Group was created within DCMI to specifically address the educational needs.

  40. IEEE LTSC • IEEE/ LTSChttp://ltsc.ieee.org/ • IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee consists of working groups that develop technical standards in different areas of information technology for learning, education and training. The Learning Objects Metadata (LOM) working group has proposed a specification that was approved last June as a standard by IEEE. IEEE LOMhttp://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD4.htm

  41. IEEE LTSC • IEEE/ LTSChttp://ltsc.ieee.org/ • Working and Study Groups • P1484.1 Architecture and Reference Model WG • P1484.3 Glossary WG • P1484.11 Computer Managed Instruction WG • P1484.12 Learning Objects Metadata WG • P1484.14 Semantics and Exchange Bindings WG • P1484.15 Data Interchange Protocols WG • P1484.18 Platform and Media Profiles WG • P1484.20 Competency Definitions WG • Digital Rights Expression Language Study Group

  42. AICC • AICC: The Aviation Industry CBT Committee http://aicc.org/ • Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry. AICC has and is developing standards for interoperability of computer-based and computer-managed training products across multiple industries

  43. ADL • ADL/SCORM http://www.adlnet.org/ • The Department of Defense of USA promoted the Advance Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative that has proposed SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) defining a Web-based learning "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for learning objects.

  44. CEN/ISSS • CEN/ISSS Learning Technologies Workshophttp://www.cenorm.be/isss/ • In 1999, the European Commission gave a mandate to CEN/ISSS – Center of European Normalisation / Information Society Standardisation System to identify a work-plan for Europe in the area of learning technology interoperability. CEN/ISSS seeks to ensure that any standards reflect European needs - i.e. can be internationalised and/or localised.

  45. ISO/IEC • JTC1  / SC 36 http://jtc1sc36.org/index.html • SC36 is a subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) of ISO and develops International Standards in information technology in the areas of Learning, Education, and Training. SC36 and its Working Groups have established as their scope: “Standardization in the field of information technologies for learning, education, and training to support individuals, groups, or organizations, and to enable interoperability and reusability of resources and tools.”

  46. Metadata & Content Standards Proposals for E-Learning ADL/SCORM IMS AICC ARIADNE IEEE -LTSC CEM/ISSS ISO/IEC Dublin Core References in standards proposals to work done by other standardization groups

  47. Specification/Standards Areasfor E-Learning

  48. W3C • There are many open standards proposed in the context of W3C that are also important to e-learning like: • XML • DTD • XML schema • XSLT • RDF

  49. E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers 1. Introduction 2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture 3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning 4. E-Learning Research Topics 5. Conclusion

  50. E-books design of electronic books electronic and web publishing platforms interaction models for e-books e-books usability accessibilty new devices for reading electronic books e-books and e-learning e-commerce and electronic books adaptive e-books multimedia and hypermedia writing e-journals new roles of publishers, books stores and libraries emerging standards for electronic books legal issues evaluation of electronic books