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E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo mhb@civil.ist.utl.pt, sean@inf.puc-rio.br, rubens@inf.puc-rio.br E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers 1. Introduction

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slide1

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities

for Database Researchers

Maria Helena Braz & Sean Siqueira & Rubens Melo

mhb@civil.ist.utl.pt, sean@inf.puc-rio.br, rubens@inf.puc-rio.br

slide2

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers

1. Introduction

2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture

3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning

4. E-Learning Research Topics

5. Conclusion

database technology applications
Database Technology & Applications

Technology

App

?

X ?

X ?

X X X ?

X X ?

X X X ?

X X X ?

X X ?

X X X ?

X X X ?

Digital Library

Mobile DB

Federated DB

Models

Ontology

Workflow

Query Processing & Opt

Interface

Indexing

Storage

GIS

Business Intelligence

Bioinformatics

E-Learning

slide4

Understand

WHAT

E-Learning is about!

the era of changes
The Era of Changes

Personal computers, Internet and, in particular, World Wide Web (WWW) are changing many aspects of human life and Education is no exception.

E-Learning

e learning
E-Learning

What is e-learning?

http://www.learningcircuits.org/glossary.html#E

E-learning: Covers a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM.

e learning7
E-Learning
  • Another possible definition is:

E-Learning is learning/teaching in the digital age where technology is used to improve it.

or in other words

E-Learning describes the use of any technology for learning outside the boundaries of the physical classroom and it is expected that technology will IMPROVE the learning process.

slide8

Content

Pedagogy

Technology

E-Learning = Technology + Pedagogy + Content

e learning designs
E-Learning Designs
  • Many possible E-Learning designs:
    • e-learning is used between traditional classes to continue discussions, access resources, support learners, etc
    • face to face classes are replaced entirely by e-learning but other course material is delivered in the traditional way
    • use of mixture of media (e.g. Web; CDROM; paper; audio, etc)
    • courses are designed to be offered completely virtually via the Internet (no face to face contact)
    • etc...
learning time x space
Learning: Time x Space

Space

Different

Distance

Same

Time

Same

Different

Traditional

the goal no barriers of space and time
The Goal: No Barriers of Space and Time

Computer-mediated communication

technologies are unique in providing

the individual with access to information

resources giving him the

capacity to participate in

an educational process

anywhere and at anytime.

overload of heterogeneous data
Overload of Heterogeneous Data

E-mail

Web pages

Video-conference

Word

Processing

Class Notes

E-Books

Learning Environments

High amount of data

Several kinds of media

Enourmous variety of tools to support e-learning

distribution and heterogeneity
Distribution and Heterogeneity

E-mail

Web pages

Video-conference

Word

Processing

Class Notes

E-Books

Proprietary

Difficult

Solutions

Reuse

Learning Environments

learning objects lo
Learning Objects (LO)

LO is any entity, digital or non digital, that can be referencede , used or reused in learning activities

Geographic Information

Text

Documents

Video

Audio

Software Programs

Bio Information

Images and Graphics

Class Notes

Books, papers etc

Thesis, dissert

Users’ interactions

Bibliography,webliography

Users’ navigation

...

creating and delivering learning materials
Creating and Delivering Learning Materials
  • As developing content is an expensive activity, emphasis is made in reuse.
  • Each learning activity has specific characteristics and, therefore, requires specific learning materials.
  • However, E-Learning requires new skills that include new methods/mechanisms for creation and delivery of learning materials.
  • In addition, as technology offers new opportunities for developing content, instructional design needs to adapt to the new existing possibilities.
learning activities
Learning Activities
  • The instructional design must work with learning activities such as:

Round tables

Role playing

Ranking

Brainstorming

Sumaring

Group investigation

Know, want, learn

And if?

Analogies

Debates

Free writing

Galery tours

Cyber cafes

Fluxograms

Cases

Checklists

Semantic mappings

Project-based learning

learning theories
Learning Theories
  • The instructional design must consider:
    • Learning Theories:
      • Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.
      • Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind.
      • Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.
instructional design general chart
Instructional Design General Chart

Analyze

Implement

Evaluate

Design

Develop

  • The instructional design must follow guidelines:
analysis
Analysis
  • What is the problem?
  • Who is the audience?
  • What is the learning environment?
design
Design
  • What should be added in the course and how its components should be organized?
  • What are the strategies, techniques and tactics to be applied in order to facilitate learning?
  • How to sequence learning materials?
    • Learning theories
    • Instructional approaches
development
Development
  • What are the more adequate medias to the elaborated plan?
  • What content sources and software tools will be used in the material development and course conduction?
  • What principles of interface project must be followed over the design and implementation?
implementation
Implementation
  • What is the management plan to course conduction?
  • What strategies and tactics must be applied to keep the learner interest even over distance?
  • How to monitor results? The course meets the plan requirements?
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Is the course effective?
  • What are the results of the formative evaluation?
  • What are the results of the additive evaluation?
  • How can the course be improved?
  • How the benefits to the organization will be measured?
slide24
Then
  • Technology has great impact in learning...
  • And All these (and other) learning/education characteristics must be considered...
  • ... So, why not to improve learning through new database research and technology?
objective
Objective

E-learning

content

This Tutorial presents the new challenges raised by the e-Learning application area to the database research community

slide26

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers

1. Introduction

2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture

3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning

4. E-Learning Research Topics

5. Conclusion

learning over the web
Learning over the Web

The trend is:

Web-Learning

digital library evolution
Digital Library Evolution

Geographic Information

Text

Documents

Video

Audio

Software Programs

Bio Information

Images and Graphics

Static => Dynamic => Interative & Collaborative

2D, 3D,

VR,

CAT

Books, papers, articles, reports etc

Speech, Music

Users’ navigation

Class Notes , bibliography, webliography

Genome Human, animal, plant

...

Models Simulations

Thesis, dissertation

Users’ interactions

(Aerial) Photos

integration or distributed search
Integration or Distributed Search?

Application 2

Application M

Application 3

Application 1

Integrated View / Search & Use View

Site 1

LOs Management

Site 2

LOs Management

LOs Management

Site 4

Site 3

Site N

LOs Management

LOs Management

slide30

buyer

“Future”

Present

E-Commerce Services

Distance Educationusing

E-commerce

Infra-structure

Globalization of education

seller

E-Commerceinfra-structure

Internet

Increasing costs of conventional education

Just-in-time,on-the-job education

Rapidlychanging content

Move towarddigital libraries

Lifelong learning

Global networkconnectivity and access,information mobility

  • Web Enabled Courses
    • learners
    • teacher
    • tutors
    • …….

DataCommunication

ComputerTechnology

DocumentTechnology

Convergence of digital technologies

slide35

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers

1. Introduction

2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture

3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning

4. E-Learning Research Topics

5. Conclusion

the importance of having standards for learning technology
The importance of having Standards for Learning Technology
  • Accredited standards assure that content will be more:
    • accessible,
    • interoperable,
    • reusable
    • and durable.
  • As standards have a great economic impact there are now many standardization efforts done not only by official certification bodies but also by consortia of educational, commercial and governmental organizations, technical committees, etc.
slide37
IMS
  • IMS http://www.imsproject.org/
  • The IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. is a global coalition of academic, commercial and government organizations that is developing and promoting open specifications for facilitating online distributed learning activities.
ariadne
ARIADNE
  • ARIADNE http://www.ariadne-eu.org/main.html
  • ARIADNE Foundation is focused on the development of tools and methodologies for producing, managing and reusing computer-based pedagogical elements and telematics supported training curricula.
dublin core
Dublin Core
  • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) http://dublincore.org/
  • DC Education Working Group http://dublincore.org/groups/education/
  • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an open forum engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models.
  • DC Education Working Group was created within DCMI to specifically address the educational needs.
ieee ltsc
IEEE LTSC
  • IEEE/ LTSChttp://ltsc.ieee.org/
  • IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee consists of working groups that develop technical standards in different areas of information technology for learning, education and training. The Learning Objects Metadata (LOM) working group has proposed a specification that was approved last June as a standard by IEEE.

IEEE LOMhttp://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/LOM_WD4.htm

ieee ltsc41
IEEE LTSC
  • IEEE/ LTSChttp://ltsc.ieee.org/
  • Working and Study Groups
      • P1484.1 Architecture and Reference Model WG
      • P1484.3 Glossary WG
      • P1484.11 Computer Managed Instruction WG
      • P1484.12 Learning Objects Metadata WG
      • P1484.14 Semantics and Exchange Bindings WG
      • P1484.15 Data Interchange Protocols WG
      • P1484.18 Platform and Media Profiles WG
      • P1484.20 Competency Definitions WG
      • Digital Rights Expression Language Study Group
slide42
AICC
  • AICC: The Aviation Industry CBT Committee http://aicc.org/
  • Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry. AICC has and is developing standards for interoperability of computer-based and computer-managed training products across multiple industries
slide43
ADL
  • ADL/SCORM http://www.adlnet.org/
  • The Department of Defense of USA promoted the Advance Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative that has proposed SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) defining a Web-based learning "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for learning objects.
cen isss
CEN/ISSS
  • CEN/ISSS Learning Technologies Workshophttp://www.cenorm.be/isss/
  • In 1999, the European Commission gave a mandate to CEN/ISSS – Center of European Normalisation / Information Society Standardisation System to identify a work-plan for Europe in the area of learning technology interoperability. CEN/ISSS seeks to ensure that any standards reflect European needs - i.e. can be internationalised and/or localised.
iso iec
ISO/IEC
  • JTC1  / SC 36

http://jtc1sc36.org/index.html

  • SC36 is a subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) of ISO and develops International Standards in information technology in the areas of Learning, Education, and Training. SC36 and its Working Groups have established as their scope: “Standardization in the field of information technologies for learning, education, and training to support individuals, groups, or organizations, and to enable interoperability and reusability of resources and tools.”
metadata content standards proposals for e learning
Metadata & Content Standards Proposals for E-Learning

ADL/SCORM

IMS

AICC

ARIADNE

IEEE -LTSC

CEM/ISSS

ISO/IEC

Dublin Core

References in standards proposals to work done by other standardization groups

slide48
W3C
  • There are many open standards proposed in the context of W3C that are also important to e-learning like:
    • XML
    • DTD
    • XML schema
    • XSLT
    • RDF
slide49

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers

1. Introduction

2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture

3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning

4. E-Learning Research Topics

5. Conclusion

e books
E-books

design of electronic books

electronic and web publishing platforms

interaction models for e-books

e-books usability

accessibilty

new devices for reading electronic books

e-books and e-learning

e-commerce and electronic books

adaptive e-books

multimedia and hypermedia writing

e-journals

new roles of publishers, books stores and libraries

emerging standards for electronic books

legal issues

evaluation of electronic books

digital library
Digital Library

social, institutional, policy, and pedagogical issues

document genres and electronic publishing

collection development and management

intellectual property

provision of services

user communities

web cataloging

metadata and content

digital preservation

digital archives and museums

knowledge management

content management

digital library infrastructure and architecture

human-computer interaction

information retrieval

information mining

ontology-based services

semantic web

semistructured data management

digital library52
Digital Library

text categorization

web information gathering

information filtering

information extraction

hypertext and multimedia

security and privacy

web based learning
Web-based Learning

Virtual University

Virtual Classroom and Virtual Laboratories

Borderless Education

Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy in Virtual Classroom

Management of Learning Resources

Knowledge Management for e-Learning

Learning & Content Management Systems

Infrastructure of Web-based Learning Environment

Developing, Integrating and Delivering e-Learning Solutions

Building Learning Architectures

Digital Libraries for e-Learning

Authoring Tools and Integrated Platforms for e-Learning

Interactive e-Learning Systems

web based learning54
Web-based Learning

Intelligent Training Technology

Electronic Publishing Tools for e-Learning

Collaborative Learning

Asynchronous Learning

Distance Learning

Evaluation/Performance Measurement & Assessment

Instructional Design for e-Learning

Web-based Training for Customers

Community Building for e-Learning

Organizational e-Learning Strategy

Quality Management in Web-based Learning

Multimedia-based Learning Systems

Database Architecture for Web-based learning

Multimedia databases for Web-based learning

conceptual models for e learning
Conceptual Models for E-Learning

Description, conceptualisation, and formal methods for conceptual modeling

Information modeling concepts, ontologies, and concept systems

Conceptual change and schema evolution

Views, integration of modeling paradigms

Design methodologies and their evaluation (ER, OO, ORM, and others)

Spatial, temporal, and multimedia aspects in conceptual models

Metadata, its interpretation and usage

Ontological and conceptual correctness in modeling

Conceptual modeling for organizational learning and learning organizations

Conceptual modeling for knowledge management systems

conceptual models for e learning56
Conceptual Models for E-Learning

Conceptual modeling for user interfaces

Conceptual modeling for digital libraries

Advanced database models, e.g. spatial, temporal, and multimedia models

Data warehouses and metadata repository design

Data mining and conceptual modeling on the basis of data mining results

Conceptual modeling of XML data

Methods and tools for internet data management

web technology
Web Technology

Emerging Standards for Web Data (XML, XSL, RDF etc)

Web data models

Web data integration and wrappers

Web query languages

Web query processing and optimization

Storage structures and indexing techniques for Web data

Web warehousing

Knowledge discovery of Web data

Web data mining and analysis

Discovering structures in Web data

Web site management

View maintenance of Web data

Web security

Mobile agents to deal with Web data

Digital libraries and information retrieval

Web caching

Web data visualization

Web Farming

mobile computing for e learning
Mobile Computing for E-learning

Data models for mobile e-learning

Impact of mobility in distributed applications

Theoretical frameworks for mobility

Software architectures for mobile distributed computing systems

Wireless communications support for mobile applications

Object oriented technologies for mobile computing

Mobile database management and mobility-aware data servers

Operating system support for mobile computing

Mobile transaction and workflow management & models

Management of network & mobile computers heterogeneity

Data & process migration, replication and recovery

mobile computing for e learning59
Mobile Computing for E-learning

Mobile agents and code

Distributed mobile objects

Wireless multimedia systems

Mobile access to Internet services

User interface management for mobile information systems

Resource allocation and management in mobile computing environment

adaptive e learning
Adaptive E-learning

Business models for the exchange of learning objects

P2P based e-learning

Metadata, metadata schemas and conceptual models for e-learning

IR and text classification methods in open learning environments

Communication between (personalized) e-learning systems on the web

Personalization strategies for open learning environments

Collaboration strategies for developing courses / course materials

Intelligent monitoring of web-based classes and courses

Authoring tools for developing adaptive and intelligent educational web systems

Empirical studies of web-based adaptive and intelligent educational systems

Educational models for personalized learning environments

slide62

E-Learning - Challenges and Opportunities for Database Researchers

1. Introduction

2. A Generic E-Learning Architecture

3. Metadata Standards Proposals for E-Learning

4. E-Learning Research Topics

5. Conclusion

slide63

Processes

Models

Principles (Rules)

Project Methodology

The Database Technology

Hardware

Software

Administration

(mental)

(vital)

(physical)

(emotional)

slide64

Define the phases of the project

For each phase, define the models

Based on Learning Theories,

Learning Models etc?

Methodology

Project Processes

Models

Principles

Analyze,

Design,

Develop,

Implement,

Evaluate...?

processes of the project typical phases
Processes of the Project: Typical Phases

And Now?

ER, Relational, RDBMS

  • Requirements analysis
  • Conceptual Project
  • Logical Implementation Project
  • Physical Project
slide66

Project Methodology

The Database Technology

Hardware

Software

Administration

(mental)

(vital)

(physical)

(emotional)

software
Software
  • R DBMS
  • Knowledge Base
  • Multimedia DBMS
  • OO DBMS
  • OR DBMS
  • Hypermedia DBMS
  • XML “DBMS”
  • Which one is the most suitable to learning content?
  • Is there a need for an Educational DBMS?
software68
Software
  • Network
  • Messaging
  • LO definition/description
  • LO publication
  • LO directory
  • LO composition
  • Quality of service
  • Management
  • Security
  • ...
support for semi structured data
Support for semi-structured data
  • files, text documents:
    • Indexing,
    • Query languages,
    • Schemas,
    • Query optimization,
    • ...
multimedia support
Multimedia support
  • Indexing,
  • Query languages,
  • Similarity-based/Content-based/Semantic querying,
  • Incorporation of feedback,
  • Buffering,
  • Real-time issues,
  • Quality of service,
  • Scheduling
slide71

Project Methodology

The Database Technology

Hardware

Software

Administration

(mental)

(vital)

(physical)

(emotional)

hardware
Hardware
  • We are talking about a very very large database.
  • Therefore, hardware must:
    • be powerful, with great memory and processing capabilities
    • support distribution and parallelism mechanisms
    • be scalable
  • Remember: traditional digital libraries are already large databases. When e-learning is considered, besides traditional digital content, it is necessary to incorporate educational participants as well as class notes, which makes data quantity even bigger...
slide73

Project Methodology

The Database Technology

Hardware

Software

Administration

(mental)

(vital)

(physical)

(emotional)

administration
Administration
  • Administration for various architectures and stages
  • Configuration management and change control
  • Service level agreements and user expectations
  • Contingency & disaster recovery planning
  • High availability architectures
slide75

There are many opportunities to db researchers

in e-learning application area.

Join us!