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The FEST Model for Testing the Importance of Hysteresis in Hydrology PowerPoint Presentation
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The FEST Model for Testing the Importance of Hysteresis in Hydrology

The FEST Model for Testing the Importance of Hysteresis in Hydrology

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The FEST Model for Testing the Importance of Hysteresis in Hydrology

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  1. The FEST Model for Testing the Importance of Hysteresis in Hydrology J. Philip O’Kane Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Environmental Research Institute UCC Int. Workshop on HYSTERESIS & MULTI-SCALE ASYMPTOTICS, University College Cork, Ireland, March 17-21, 2004

  2. Content 1. Introduction soil physics 2. The BASE model bare soil with evaporation and drainage 3. The FEST model fully vegetated soil slab with transpiration 4. The structure of FEST feedback structure bifurcation

  3. 1. Introduction 1. Hysteresis in hydrology, climatology, ecohydrology Is it significant? For what questions? 2. Hysteresis in open channel flow Rate dependent 3. Hysteresis in soil physics Rate independent 4. Method Build “test rigs” to answer the questions BASE model - pde - soil physics FEST model - ode - plausible soil bio-physics

  4. Some soil physics

  5. Soil: a multi-phase material Each phase has mass M and volume V The REV – representative elementary volume 1 cm Air Ma, Va Water Mw, Vw Soil-solids Ms, Vs 1 cm 1 cm

  6. Ratios describe the multi-phase material Total porosity ff = (Va + Vw)/(Va + Vw + Vs ) Void ratio e = (Va + Vw)/Vs[m3m-3] Particle densityrs = Ms/Vs Dry bulk densityrb = Ms/(Va + Vw + Vs ) Water densityrw = Mw/Vw [Mgm-3] Air Ma, Va Water Mw, Vw Soil-solids Ms, Vs

  7. Moisture content Volumetric wetnessq = Vw /(Va +Vw +Vs ) In clay soilsthe soil matrix swells, Vs = f(Vw), q has no well-defined maximum value In gravel, sand and silt, the soil matrix is “rigid” q has a maximum at saturation 0 < q < qs < 1, at saturation Va= 0 Mass wetnessw = Mw /Ms q = wrb/rw in rigid soils

  8. Potential energy of soil water • A mass m of soil water of volume Vand density w = m/V • is moved on an arbitrary path through a vertical distance z • by a force • mg = wVg • The dissipationless work done against the force of gravity is • mgz = (wVg)z • There are three alternative ways of representing the • potential energy of this water as dissipationless work • (a) per unit mass, (b) per unit volume, and (c) per unit weight

  9. Potential energy per unit mass, volume and weight

  10. Total potential is a sum of partial potentials y = yg + ym + yo + yp + ya + yW yggravitational potential ymmatric potential yo osmotic potential yp hydrostatic potential ya atmospheric yW overburden potential

  11. Partial potentials with common reference state - free water at z=0

  12. Soil-moisture characteristic - matric potential, soil suction or drying m = m(), m e < 0, 0 <  s, e air-entry potential,  =  s =  (m) inverse function Specific water capacity C() = d/dm Drying and wetting are different - hysteresis - usually ignored !

  13. Ym(z) partitions q(z)into liquid and vapour fractions • h(z) relative humidity of soil-air • Mwis the molar mass of water (0.018 kg/mol), • R the molar gas constant (8.314 J/mol K) • T the constant temperature in degrees Kelvin (293 K at 200C).

  14. The BASE model - bare soil with evaporation and drainage

  15. T E P Water flow in a column of soil Vertical coordinate from the ground surface positive downwards to the watertable (no air) 0 Soil 1 I Soil 2 10 m z Soil 3 1 m 1 m C D

  16. Conservation of water mass in one dimension fl is the flux density of liquid water (kg m-2s-1) fv is the flux density of water vapour (kg m-2s-1), in the direction of positive zi.e. downwards,

  17. Generalised Darcy’s Law Philip, 1955 Buckingham, 1907

  18. Philip-Richards equation – ψ form Solutions sought in the space of continuous functions ym(z,t) Discontinuities allowed inq(z,t) to match discontinuous soil horizons Philip 1955, Richards, 1931

  19. Boundary conditions & forcing Flux Boundary conditions Precipitation Evaporation Overland flow - ignore initially Interflow - ignore in one dimension Potential Boundary condition Ponded infiltration Fixed water table Mixed Boundary condition Evaporation Drainage to a moving water table Forcing function Transpiration

  20. Standard hydrological questions Infiltration & surface runoff Evaporation Transpiration Redistribution Capillary rise Drainage

  21. Two pairs of switched boundary conditions - atmosphere or soil control of fluxes? Outer pair - fluxes at potential rates Raining or drying atmosphere control Inner pair - fluxes at smaller actual rates Surface ponding or phase 2 drying soil control

  22. The raining and drying cycle td Potential evaporation Actual evaporation Soil drying begins Ea<Ep Ea=Ep tE tQ Soil wetting begins q0<qR q0=qR Actual infiltration Potential infiltration tp

  23. Alternating control td Potential evaporation Actual evaporation Atmosphere control! Ea=Ep Soil control ? Ea<Ep Soil drying begins tE tQ Soil wetting begins Soil control ? q0<qR Atmosphere control! q0=qR Actual infiltration Potential infiltration tp

  24. Richards equation – θform

  25. Infiltration - atmosphere control D \ K constant K linear K non-linear K delta function D Mein & Larson (1973) constant D Breaster Breaster Clothier et al (1973) (1973) (1981) ‘Fujita D’ Knight & Rogers et al. Sander et al. Philip (1983) (1988) (1974)

  26. Infiltration - soil control D \ K constant K linear K non-linear K delta function D Green & Ampt (1911) constant D Carslaw & Philip Philip Jaeger (1969) (1974) (1946) ‘Fujita D’ Fujita not solved not solved (1952)

  27. Evaporation - atmosphere control D \ K constant K linear K non-linear K delta function D not applicable constant D Breaster* Breaster* Kühnel (1973) (1973) (1989 [C]) ‘Fujita D’ Knight & Sander & Sander & Philip* Kühnel Kühnel (1974) (19**) (19**) *complementary to infiltration solution

  28. Evaporation - soil control D \ K constant K linear K non-linear K delta function D not applicable constant D Carslaw & Kühnel & Kühnel Jaeger* Sander (1989 [C]) (1946) (19**) ‘Fujita D’ Fujita* not solved not solved (1952) *complementary to infiltration solution

  29. The FEST model -fully vegetated soil slab with transpiration Goal: from plausible biophysics an ode - for testing hysteresis operators

  30. FEST ordinary differential equation • Uniform moisture in the root zone • Gradients in potential become differences • Brooks-Corey-Campbell parametric expressions for the matric potential and hydraulic conductivities of soils • Square wave atmospheric forcing

  31. Transpiration • Roots completely penetrate the uniform root zone • A 3-D wick sucks water from the uniform roots to a uniform canopy • Leaf potential is matric potential of soil water plus change in gravitational potential between the roots and canopy • Potential transpiration (given) drives actual transpiration

  32. Potential transpiration - given The Philip boundary condition Leaf evaporation is proportional to the difference in humidity between (a) the atmosphere, and (b) the stomatal air in “thermodynamic” equilibrium with its plant water in the canopy

  33. Actual transpiration • drops below • the potential rate • when stomates close • at leaf potentials between • some higher value (e.g. -5,000cm) • and the wilting potential (e.g. -10,000cm)

  34. Feedback loops for transpiration

  35. Transpiration loops with soil physics parameters

  36. Infiltration Actual infiltration is the minimum of the rainfall rate and the potential infiltration rate Infiltration is assumed to occur throughout the soil slab through preferential paths due to worm holes, animal burrows and dead roots presenting the infiltrating water uniformly to the soil matrix.

  37. Potential infiltration rate is equal to the hydraulic conductivity at the soil water potential times the difference between that potential and the air entry potential of the rain divided by an arbitrary pore spacing

  38. Infiltration feedback loops

  39. Infiltration with parameters

  40. Feedback loops for drainage/capillary rise with soil physics parameters

  41. Feedback loops for drainage, capillary rise

  42. Cut the feedback loops Multiple equilibria Bifurcation

  43. Bifurcation to desert

  44. E

  45. E1

  46. A

  47. B

  48. C