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COST 728 Workshop Exeter, England May 3,4, 2007. Conceptual database system for urban model development & applications. Jason Ching ARL/NOAA –NERL/USEPA Research Triangle Park, NC email@example.com. Presentation outline CAVEAT: mostly generic but contains some USA perspectives.
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May 3,4, 2007
Research Triangle Park, NC
To capture the area-average effect of the urban area in mesoscale atmospheric models
Modelers have implemented urban canopy parameterizations into their models (e.g., MM5, WRF, HOTMAC, RAMS, COAMPS…)
Salt Lake City, UT (Don Green Photography)
Urban canopy details can not be represented: Parameterize the urban surface effects.
Majority of pollutants emitted inside roughness sub-layer: Necessitates good precision on meteorological fields.
Ground conditions in mesoscale model not satisfactory at neighborhood scale: apply drag-force and land use features at urban scales
Buildings distributed in 1 km grid.
Mesoscale: Model produces single meteorology profile applicable to grid cell
Results influenced by the presence and aggregated effects of buildings.
Building scale: Intra-cell flow fields will be highly variable (horizontally and vertically), influenced by the individual buildings.
DA-SM2U in MM5 (Gayno-Seaman sub-system)
o Urbanization introduced at grid sizes of ~1km using drag approach (DA)
o Land surface model (SM2-U)
o Additional, within canopy layers
(Kastner-Klein and Rotach, 2001)
Roof area density
Building plan area density
Building frontal area density
Vegetation area density
Introduction of canopy concepts and urban morphology parameters make possible improved modeling
The knowledge of the vertical and horizontal distribution of the different urban land cover modes is necessary.
Urban canopy parameterization
means for obtaining building
data at high resolution; such
data and ancillary data are
becoming increasingly more
available for our major cities
High resolution urban
from lidar mapping
GPS Ground Station
Swath width = 625m
30 km radius
3 m spacing
* Record Longest Return
* Normally Rotary Wing
* Continuous Ground Coverage
*Parameters used in RA formulations Height dependent UCP
NOTE! Each grid cell has unique combination of UCPs
DA-SM2U (UCP version) Standard MM5 (RA)
MM5 Sensible Heat Flux (w/UCP)
MM5 PBL w/UCP
MM5 PBL (RA)
MM5 Sensible Heat Flux (RA)
Disclaimer:The research presented here was performed under the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and under agreement number DW13921548. This work constitutes a contribution to the NOAA Air Quality Program. Although it has been reviewed by EPA and NOAA and approved for publication, it does not necessarily reflect their policies or views.