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Classification of Bacteria

Classification of Bacteria

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Classification of Bacteria

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  1. Classification of Bacteria Survey of Clinically Relevant Bacteria

  2. Modern Prokaryotic Classification Eubacteria Archeabacteria Cyanobacteria Thermophiles

  3. We will not forget the Archaea Have no cell nucleus or any other membrane organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria but since the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life. They are now classified as a separate domain

  4. Diversity of Bacteria

  5. Classification of Bacteria • Classification – ordering • Nomenclature – naming • Often immortalizes the person who discovered it or its origin • Escherichia coli  Theodor Escherich • coli  from colon • Distinguishing –identification

  6. Classification of Bacteria • *Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • *Genus ( 1st name) • *Species ( 2nd name identifier) Remember: King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti

  7. Classification of Bacteria • Morphology – shape, color, gram specificity • Metabolism • Molecular techniques – Forensics, DNA finger prints, RNA, protein analysis

  8. 1 Gram Negative Spiral Bacteria • Slender and flexible, come in a lot of different shapes • More rigid than spirochetes • Ex. – Campylobacter jejuni • Symptom – tenesmus: the sensation of desire to defecate, which is common and occurs frequently , with out the production of significant amounts of feces (often small amounts of mucous or blood are alone passed).

  9. 2 Gram Negative Spirochetes • pathogenic • very flexible • tightly coiled, helically coiled • Example • syphilis Treponema pallidum

  10. Gram Negative Spirochetes • Most of pathogenic • Very flexible • Tightly coiled, helically coiled • Example • Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi (organism gets lodged in tissues)

  11. 3 Gram Negative Aerobic Rods • Legionella pneumophila • Lower respiratory tract infection • Needs oxygen

  12. Gram Negative Aerobic Rods Bordetella pertussis – whooping cough • Needs oxygen

  13. Gram Negative Aerobic Rods • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pigmented) • Needs moisture • Common in hospitals • Opportunistic pathogen – causes UTI, skin, and lung infection

  14. 4 Gram Negative Facultative Rods Vibrio • V. cholerae • Most well known of group • Very severe dysentery. Can lose 10-15 liters of water/day. Leads to hypovolemia – low water, hardly any water in body • V. vulnificus • Very pathogenic • Can cause flesh eating disease, if it gets in a wound • V. parahaemolyticus • Found in shellfish – oysters • Halophile – loves salt (will find in oceans, estuaries) • Self limiting

  15. Gram Negative Facultative Rods • Enteric • Salmonella • Shigella • E. coli (0157H7)

  16. 5 Gram Negative Anaerobic Rods • Fusobacterium • Live in between teeth and gums • Cause tooth abscesses and periodontal disease • Teeth have nothing to anchor – bone is destroyed

  17. 6 Gram Negative Cocci or Coccobaccilli (plump rods) Neisseria gonorrhoeae – Usually a diplococcus in PMN Sexually Transmitted Disease very antibiotic resistant

  18. Gram Negative Cocci or Coccobaccilli (plump rods) • Neisseria meningitidis very infectious and communicable.

  19. Gram Negative Cocci or Coccobaccilli (plump rods) Acinetobacter baumanni iv. lwoffi opportunistic, UTI, skin, and upper respiratory

  20. 7 Chlamydia Gram Negative Rods (Transitional) • Very short little rods • Gram negative • Transitional – doesn’t hold stain well • Do not have the ability to synthesize own ATP, therefore and obligate intracellular parasite of other animals (humans) • Can go asymptomatic for a long time • Ex. • C. trachomatis – STD, causes eye infection • C. psittaci – parrot (associated with birds)

  21. 8 Rickettsia Gram Negative Rod (Transitional) • Small gram negative rods • Transitional – doesn’t hold stain well • Can’t synthesize it’s own NAD, coenzyme A, therefore an obligate intracellular parasite • Causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Example • R. Prowazekii

  22. 9 Mycoplasma Gram Positive (Transitional ) • Gram positive – only because they take in dye in cell membrane but it washes away • Transitional – doesn’t hold stain well. • Have no cell wall • Can not treat with penicillin • Ex. • Mycoplasma pneumoniae – causes LRTI • Ureaplasma urealyticum – causes UTI • Both imbed themselves in the tissue. The most cell damage is done by the immune system destroying the tissue.

  23. 10 Gram Positive Cocci Staphyloccocus aureus MRSA These bacteria can break down all tissues of body.

  24. Gram Positive Cocci Streptococcus pyogenes – no antibiotic resistance right now These bacteria can break down all tissues of body.

  25. 11 Gram positive Endospore Forming Rods • Difficult to get rid of because of endospores • Example • Clostridium tetani

  26. Gram positive Endospore Forming Rods • Difficult to get rid of because of endospores • Example • C. perfringens – gangrene

  27. Gram positive Endospore Forming Rods • Difficult to get rid of because of endospores • Common in hospitals • Example • C. difficile antibiotic associated pseudmembraneous enterocolitis

  28. Clostridium difficile

  29. Gram positive Endospore Forming Rods Bacillus • B. anthracis – anthrax • zoonosis

  30. Gram positive Endospore Forming Rods Bacillus • B. cereus – food poising Especially in high carb foods – rice, vermicelli • B. thuringiensis – natures insecticide

  31. 12 Coryneforms • Pleomorphic (many shapes) • Example Corynebacterium diphtheriae

  32. 13Mycobacteria • Gram positive and Acid Fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis Respiratory Pathogen MDR-TB In the 1950s we sent people with TB to the sanitariums

  33. Mycobacteria • Gram positive and Acid Fast • M. avium intracellular complex (MAC) • Really bad bug • Currently no drugs can cure it • Especially bad for people with AIDS • Can cause atypical TB

  34. Mycobacteria • Gram positive and Acid Fast • M. leprae • Causative agent of leprosy • Not very common • Only affects areas of body that are below body temperature • Natural reservoir is the armadillo