alismataceae the arrowhead or water plantain family 4 29 30 cosmopolitan l.
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Alismatanae Alismataceae -- the arrowhead or water-plantain family (4/29-30; cosmopolitan) Plants flowering, synoecious or monoecious (rarely dioecious); milky sap Habit aquatic herbs

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alismataceae the arrowhead or water plantain family 4 29 30 cosmopolitan

Alismatanae

Alismataceae -- the arrowhead or water-plantain family (4/29-30; cosmopolitan)
  • Plants flowering, synoecious or monoecious (rarely dioecious); milky sap
  • Habit aquatic herbs
  • Leaves simple; mostly basal with or without a well developed blade (sometimes leaves dimorphic); parallel-veined
  • Inflorescences cymes (can appear racemose or paniculate), terminal
  • Flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect, hypogynous; gynoecium borne on a well developed convex receptacle and in most genera the carpels are spirally arranged (occasionally in whorls)
  • Calyx 3 sepals, distinct
  • Corolla 3 petals, distinct, ephemeral
  • Androecium 6-many stamens; distinct
  • Gynoecium superior; 6-many distinct carpels; 1 locule/carpel; 1 ovule/locule, basal placentation; 1 short style with inconspicuous stigma
  • Fruit aggregate of achenes
  • [Floral formula: Ca 3 Co 3 A 6-G 6-]
potamogetonaceae the pondweed family 1 100 cosmopolitan

Alismatanae

Potamogetonaceae -- the pondweed family (1/100; cosmopolitan)
  • Plants flowering, bisexual flowers
  • Habit aquatic herbs
  • Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple, entire, sheathing with stipule-like ligules: floating or submersed leaves
  • Inflorescences spike
  • Flowers actinomorphic, perfect, hypogynous
  • Perianth4 tepals, distinct, inconspicuous
  • Androecium 4 stamens; distinct, opposite the tepals and basally adnate to them; anthers sessile
  • Gynoecium superior; 4 distinct carpels; 1 locule/carpel; ovule/locule, marginal placentation; 1 short style or sessile stigma
  • Fruit achene or drupe
  • [Floral formula: T 4 A 4 G 4 ]
araceae the arum family 108 2830 cosmopoliton mostly in tropics and subtropics

Aranae

Araceae -- the arum family(108/2830; cosmopoliton, mostly in tropics and subtropics)
  • Plants flowering, bisexual or monoecious
  • Habit herbs, shrubs or vines; terrestrial, aquatic, or semi-epiphytic; vining members may be ± woody; adventitious roots especially evident
  • Leaves alternate; simple to pinnately or palmately lobed or compound; blades with pinnate and reticulate venation and usually long petiole that is sheathing to some degree; sometimes a bladeless deciduous sheathing leaf (prophyll) basally encloses each foliage leaf
  • Inflorescences fleshy spike, the spadix, surrounded or subtended by a conspicuous bract called a spathe (reduced in floating aquatics)
  • Flowers small, actinomorphic, perfect (imperfect), hypogynous
  • Perianth 0, 4 or 6 tepals distinct or connate
  • Androecium 1-6 (-12) stamens distinct or connate; filaments short or anthers sessile
  • Gynoecium superior (appears inferior when sunken into flesh of spadix); 1 pistil with1- many connate carpels; 1-many locules; 1-many ovules/locule, placentation various; stigma sessile
  • Fruit berry (or occasionally utricle, drupe, or nutlike)
  • [Floral formula: T 0 or 4-6 A 4-10 G 2-4 ]
slide4

Lilianae I

Liliaceae -- the lily family (sensu stricto)(22/485; Mostly Northern Hemisphere, greatest diversity in Southeast Asia)
  • Plants flowering, bisexual
  • Habit herbs; sometimes with bulbs or rhizomes
  • Leaves alternate, whorled or all basal (opposite); simple usually with sheathing bases, sometimes succulent or reduced to scales; parallel venation
  • Inflorescences various, but are borne terminally
  • Flowers actinomorphic to slightly zygomorphic, perfect, hypogynous, hypanthium sometimes present, showy
  • Perianth 6 tepals, often petaloid
  • Androecium 6 stamens distinct; free or adnate to hypanthium; anthers dorsifixed and versatile or basifixed
  • Gynoecium superior;1 pistil with 3 connate carpels; 3 locules; 1-many ovules/locule, axile placentation; 1 simple style and 3-lobed stigma or 3-branched style with stigmas on style branches
  • Fruit capsule or berry
  • [Floral formula: T 6 A 6 G 3 ]
trilliaceae the trillium family 1 50 mostly northern hemisphere

Lilianae I

Trilliaceae -- the trillium family(1/50; mostly Northern Hemisphere)
  • Plants flowering, bisexual
  • Habit rhizomatous herbs
  • Leaves whorled (and usually the same number as the sepals); simple, entire, sessile with palmate venation, with primary veins converging, secondary veins pinnate, and higher-order veins forming a distinct reticulum
  • Inflorescences single, terminal flower
  • Flowers actinomorphic, perfect, hypogynous
  • Perianth distinct calyx and corolla, sepals and petals 3 or 4
  • Androecium 6 (or 8) stamens, distinct
  • Gynoecium superior;1 pistil with 3-10 connate carpels; ovules numerous in each locule, axile placentation; 3 stigmas
  • Fruit fleshy capsule or berry; seeds arillate (not black)
  • [Floral formula: Ca 3-6 Co 3-6 A 6-16 G 3-8 ]
dioscoreaceae the yam family 5 600 cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions esp in america

Lilianae II

Dioscoreaceae -- the yam family(5/600+; cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions, esp. in America)
  • Plants flowering, dioecious or synoecious; sometimes have bulbils in leaf axils
  • Habit herbs, vines with tubers or thick rhizomes Members are mostly vines with alternate (rarely opposite) leaves.
  • Leaves alternate, simple, entire, palmately veined with reticulate venation, often with cordate base, petiole with a pulvinus (swollen area) at both ends
  • Inflorescences racemes, spikes, panicules of cymes borne in the axil of leaves
  • Flowers actinomorphic, usually imperfect, epigynous, small and inconspicuous
  • Perianth 6 tepals, petaloid to ± sepaloid; distinct or basally connate; rotate or campanulate
  • Androecium 6 stamens, 3 sometimes reduced to staminodes or absent; distinct; adnate to perianth (epipetalous)
  • Gynoeciuminferior; 1 pistil of 3 connate carpels; 3 locules; 2 ovules/locule, axile placentation; 3 styles and 3 stigmas
  • Fruit capsule, berry or samara and in Dioscorea it is typically three winged
  • [Floral formula: T 6 A 3-6 G 3]
dioscoreaceae comments

Lilianae II

Dioscoreaceae -- comments
  • Vegetatively this family can look like a dicot, for example Aristolochiaceae or Menispermaceae! How would you tell the family from Aristolochiaceae? The yam and several medicinals come from Dioscorea.
smilacaceae the catbrier family 2 317 tropical and temperate

beta family

Smilacaceae -- the catbrier family(2/317; tropical and temperate)
  • Plants flowering, dioecious
  • Habit vines, climbing by tendrils arising from petioles, or erect herbs
  • Leaves alternate, simple, entire to spinose serrate, petiolate with palmate venation, with primary veins converging, secondary veins pinnate, and higher-order veins forming a distinct reticulum
  • Inflorescences determinate, umbellate, terminal or axillary
  • Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic, inconspicuous
  • Perianth 6 tepals, distinct to slightly connate
  • Androecium 6 stamens, distinct, anthers unilocular
  • Gynoecium superior;1 pistil with 3connate carpels; ovules 1-2 per locule, axile placentation; 3 stigmas
  • Fruit 1-3 seeded berry