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American Youth Soccer Organization Welcome To Regional Referee Training Regional Referee Course Plan Monday 8/25—Getting started AYSO Principles & Team, Coaching, Players, Referees Pre-game, Field , Players & Equip , Ball , Start, Injury & Dropped ball

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american youth soccer organization
American Youth Soccer Organization

Welcome

To

Regional Referee

Training

regional referee course plan
Regional Referee Course Plan
  • Monday 8/25—Getting started
    • AYSO Principles & Team, Coaching, Players, Referees
    • Pre-game, Field, Players & Equip, Ball, Start, Injury & Dropped ball
    • Ball out of play, Goal, Throw-in, Goal kick, Corner kick
  • Tuesday 8/26—During the game
    • Referee, Ass’t Referee
    • Offside, Fouls and Misconduct
    • Free kicks, Penalty kicks
  • Wednesday 8/27—Referee skills and wrap-up
    • Mechanics, Signaling, Substitutions, Mistakes, Post game, Summary
    • Safe Haven
    • Test
ayso games are
AYSO games are
  • Safe
  • Fair
  • Fun
ayso philosophies
AYSO Philosophies
  • Open Registration
  • Balanced teams
  • Everyone plays
  • Positive Coaching
  • Good Sportsmanship
ayso team
AYSO Team
  • How many teams are on the field of play?

Referees

Coaches

Players

Spectators

ayso team6

GOAL:

Provide positive child development in

a safe, fair, and fun soccer environment.

AYSO Team

How do teammates interact?

  • work together
  • help each other
  • protect each other
  • do their best
ayso team7
AYSO Team
  • Children need role models. We can TELL our children how teammates work together, or we can SHOW them.
  • As referees, we orchestrate an environment that allows the AYSO Team to SHOW children positive role models.

Conclusion:

ayso coaching
AYSO Coaching
  • No more than two coaches per team
  • Coaches must remain in coach’s area during the game:
  • Coaching is:

Positive

Instructive

Encouraging

ayso referees
AYSO Referees

Understanding the level and abilities of the players will assist you in your role of referee:

  • Part teacher, part facilitator, part “fair play” arbiter
    • For younger players, emphasis is on positive instruction
    • Give enthusiasm to kids; convey the spirit of the game
    • Help them learn the basics, but let them play
  • Referees are volunteers
    • Just like the players and coaches
    • Everyone's learning... and having fun
pre game activities
Pre-game Activities
  • Focus on safety:
    • Field of play
    • Players and equipment
    • Your own safety
  • Introduce yourself to, or recruit, fellow officials; have a short pre-game discussion
  • Introduce yourself to coaches of both teams
before play starts
Before Play Starts
  • Arrive a minimum 15 minutes before game time
  • Check field, field markings, flags, goals, nets.
  • Check players’ equipment.
  • Acquire and check ball.
  • Conduct coin toss to determine kick-off and direction.
the field law 1
The Field (Law 1)

Lines on the field are part of the areas they enclose.

the players law 3
The Players (Law 3)
  • 11 players, one of whom is the Goalkeeper
    • In Region 109
      • U9 & U10 – 7 players
      • U12 – 9 players
  • Must have and maintain at least 7
    • In Region 109
      • U9 & U10 – 5 players
      • U12 – 7 players
  • Obtain roster cards
    • Players listed in numerical order
    • Assures players are properly registered in Region
the players equipment law 4
The Players’ Equipment (Law 4)
  • Team uniform (shirt, shorts, socks)—goalkeeper must be distinguishable from other players and referee
  • Shin guards -- must be under socks
  • Shoes -- no toe cleats or sharp spikes
  • Nothing dangerous (in your opinion)
    • No casts
    • No earrings, watches, jewelry, sun glasses, hats...
    • Medical bracelets o.k.
the ball law 2
The Ball (Law 2)
  • Sizes:
    • U14 to U19—Size 5;
    • U12 to U9—Size 4;
    • U8 and below—Size 3.
  • No rough edges
  • Inflated to thumb pressure
  • You choose from balls offered by teams
    • Remember (write down) which team’s ball you took!
    • (see slide on “After the Game”)
the coin toss
The Coin Toss
  • Called by “visiting” team captain
  • Explain toss carefully
  • Winner chooses direction of attack
  • Other team kicks off
  • Announce result clearly
kick off law 8
Kick Off (Law 8)
  • Ball at mid-field, on ground, stationary
  • Everyone in their own half
  • Opposing players outside the circle
  • Ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward. (Retake if it does not move forward.)
  • Must be played to another player
  • A goal may be scored directly from a kick-off.
  • At beginning of each half, start your watch once ball is properly in play
slide18

Kickoff Positions

X

Y

Y

X

X

g

o

a

l

g

o

a

l

X

Y

X

X

Y

Y

X

Y

Y

X

X Team kick

end of play law 7
End of Play (Law 7)
  • Each half is
    • 20 minutes in U7 and U8 35 min. U1425 min. U9 and U10 40 min. U1630 min. U12 45 min. U19
    • plus time “lost”
  • Half time is 5 to 10 minutes
  • Each half ends when time runs out. Stop play.
  • You can suspend or terminate game early
    • Dangerous conditions (lightning, darkness)
    • Crowd out of control, etc.
injury law 5
Injury (Law 5)

Stop play whenever in your opinion a player is hurt or may be about to be hurt (stop immediately, or anytime appropriate).

Any player bleeding must leave the field.

Hurt is not:Fallen down, shoe lace untied, muddy

Let coach tend an injured player

Allow a substitute IF necessary

Restart by dropping the ball

dropped ball law 8
Dropped Ball (Law 8)
  • For “incidental” stoppages (e.g. injury)
  • Same advantage to both teams
  • Outside the goal area
  • One player from each side facing each other
  • Referee drops the ball from waist height
  • Re-drop if touched before it hits the ground
  • Only instance of a restart where player can immediately play ball again
out of play law 9
Out of play (Law 9)

When the ball goes entirely over a boundary line

  • Into a goal Goal, Kick off
  • Over a touch line Throw -in
  • Over a goal line

By an attacker Goal kick

By a defender Corner kick

Or, once the referee has decided to stop play, for

  • An infringement Free kick, penalty kick
  • Everything else Drop ball

Exceptions:

Ball held by goal-keeper is in play but other players may not challenge for it

The goals, the corner flags and the referees are in play

ball in out of play law 9
Ball In/Out of Play (Law 9)

Out!

In!

In!

In!

Field of play

Ball may be on the ground OR in the air.

goal law 10
Goal (Law 10)
  • Ball must cross into the goal while in play
  • Doesn't matter who put it there
  • Goal can’t be awarded for any other reason
  • Restart after a goal is a kick off by scored-on team
throw in law 15
Throw-in (Law 15)
  • When ball passes entirely over the touch line
  • Thrown in at that point by any player of the team that did not last touch it
  • Other must be 2 meters (approx. 6 feet) away
  • Limited advantage
    • Both feet on the ground, on or outside the line
    • Using both hands, from behind and over the head
  • Throw-in to other team if done incorrectly
  • Indirect and to another player
feet on throw in

Field of play

Feet on throw in
  • On ground, on or outside line

OK OK Not OK!

goal kick law 16
Goal kick (Law 16)

When attackers play ball across goal line and no goal

Any defender places and kicks the ball fromanywhere in goal area

Opponents must be outside the penalty area

Ball is not in play until it leaves the penalty area

May not be played a second time until it does

If it is played inside penalty area, retake

Direct and to another player

For any infringement other than the kicker playing the ball a 2nd time outside the Penalty Area, retake

corner kick law 17
Corner kick (Law 17)
  • When defenders play ball across goal line and no goal
  • Any attacker places and kicks the ball: From within corner arc Corner flag may not be moved
  • Opponents all stay 10 yards away
  • Next played by another player
  • Ball is directly in play, goal can be scored from kick
the nuts and bolts of refereeing
The “Nuts and Bolts” of Refereeing
  • Phases
    • Before the game
    • At the start of the game
    • During the game
    • During the half-time
    • At the end
the referee law 5
The referee (Law 5)
  • Decisions are final; may change decision if play has not restarted
  • May choose to ignore “trifling” misdemeanors, or those that give advantage to the other team
  • Keeps time
  • Makes a record of the game
  • Signals for restarts
  • Disciplines players and team officials for misconduct, before, during, and after the game
the assistant referee law 6
The Assistant Referee (Law 6)
  • Assists the center referee
  • May or may not be neutral (i.e., trained referees)
  • Neutral assistants signal
    • throw-in (direction)
    • goal-kick and corner-kick
    • offside
    • fouls and other infractions, subject to referee instructions
  • In a pre-game discussion review signals, what assistant should watch, and who is backup timer.
ayso directive
AYSO Directive

The Laws of the Game are intended to provide that games should be played with as little interference as possible, and in this view it is the duty of referees to penalize only deliberate breaches of the Law.

Constant whistling for trifling and doubtful breeches produces bad feelings and loss of temper on the part of the players and spoils the pleasure of the spectators.

offside law 11
Offside (Law 11)
  • What is the intent of this law?
    • A player who is behind the defense and receives the ball from a teammate has not earned his advantage. A player should beat the last defender to earn a shot on goal.
  • The offside law penalizes tactically unfair play.
  • Offside is a technical infraction; award an IFK.
offside law 1136
Offside (Law 11)

Offside is position+ moment + participation

To be offside, a player has to be

  • in the wrong place
        • too far forward
  • at the wrong time
        • when the ball is played by a teammate
  • doing the wrong thing
        • being part of a play he shouldn’t be in
offside position
Offside position

It is not an offence to be in an offside position.

A player is in an offside position if:

he is nearer to his opponents’ goal line than both the ball and the second last opponent.

A player is not in an offside position if:

he is in his own half of the field, or

he is level with the second last opponent, or

he is level with the last two opponents.

offside position39
Offside Position

Offside Position

OK

OK

OK

D

D

D

offside continued
Offside - continued

Moment of judgment is

when ball is played or touched by a teammate.

[It’s OK to go into an offside position after the ball has been played.]

Participation is, in the opinion of the referee,

being part of or interfering with play, or

gaining an advantage from being in that offside position.

[It’s OK to be in an offside position if you don’t try to use it.]

Unless

player receives the ball direct from a goal-kick, corner-kick, or throw-in.

offside the spirit
Offside - the spirit
  • Law books are full of examples and subtleties
  • Don’t get all technical
  • Remember the principle

*** No unearned breakaways on goal ***

  • If in doubt, don’t call it
offside 2 questions
Offside: 2 Questions
  • At the MOMENT a teammate played the ball, was the player in an off-side POSITION?
    • If NO: No off-side infraction
  • If YES:Did the player PARTICIPATE in the play?
    • If NO: No off-side infraction
  • The answer to BOTH QUESTIONS must be YES for an off-side infraction!
fouls law 12
Fouls (Law 12)

Serious (“penal”) fouls

  • e.g., tripping, holding, or pushing an opponent ...
  • result in a direct free kick or penalty kick

Technical (“non-penal”) fouls

  • e.g., dangerous play, impeding an opponent, ...
  • result in an indirect free kick

Misconduct (very rare in U10)

  • e.g., violence, offensive or insulting language,...
  • result in cautions and dismissals
serious penal fouls
Serious (“penal”) fouls
  • Kicking, striking, tripping, pushing, charging, or jumping at an opponent “carelessly, recklessly, or with excessive force”
  • Holding, spitting, or tackling and contacting the opponent before contacting the ball
  • Deliberately handling the ball, except goal-keeper in own penalty area
  • Particularly serious fouls are misconduct
charges tackles and challenges
“Charges”, “tackles” and “challenges”
  • To “challenge” someone is to try to take the ball away
      • Challenges are OK
  • To “tackle” is to block the ball, not the opponent
      • Tackles are OK
  • To “charge” is to bump someone
  • Charging is OK only when it’s
      • Done by players who are playing the ball
      • Limited in duration (no bull dozing)
      • Shoulder to shoulder (not in back!)
      • Not at all violent
tripping
Tripping
  • Causing an opponent to fall by use of legs
  • Action must be careless, reckless, or involving excessive force.
  • The ball can’t trip. There must be contact.
  • Usually, tripper initiates contact
  • Playing the ball first usually gives a player the “right of way”
handling the ball
Handling the ball
  • “Hand” includes arm to the shoulder
  • Handballs must be deliberate; incidental hand/ball contact (including an attempt to handle) is not a foul
  • Player places hand (or arm) so that it touches the ball
  • “Reflexive” self-defense is OK -- if it is just that
  • Is there evidence of control in the bounce?
  • Did the ball play the hand (OK) ordid the hand play the ball?
holding and pushing
Holding and pushing
  • Unfairly impeding an opponent by use of hands (typically) or body
  • Must involve contact.
  • Watch for extended arms across the chest, raised elbows
  • “Hip check”
technical non penal fouls
Technical (“non-penal”) fouls
  • Dangerous play (often seen in younger players’ games)
  • Impeding the progress of an opponent (non-contact) when not playing the ball
  • Interfering with the goal keeper in penalty area
  • Goalkeeper limits (next slide)
goalkeeper limitations
Goalkeeper limitations

Goalkeepers may not be harassed or interfered with while attempting to put the ball in play. It is the duty of referees to protect the goalkeeper against dangerous play.

BUT the goalkeeper is limited in this advantage.

  • They may hold the ball for up to 6 seconds, after this they are “wasting time”.
  • They can’t pick up the ball if:

they get it by a pass from a teammate’s foot (“back pass” rule), or if they receive a throw-in from a teammate, or if they have just put it down (it must first be played by an opponent).

“Coach”, don’t just penalize, young goalkeepers in these situations.

dangerous play
Dangerous play

Called for being too risky, not for doing damage

The “gasp test”

High kicking

Above the knee; Out of control; Near other players

Playing on the ground

Player plays the ball while lying on ground near other players

Reason: They must stop, so player on ground must stop

Sliding tackles

Player slides feet first to ball being played by an opponent

Very dangerous if done from behind

Is it under control? Where are the feet?

misconduct
Misconduct

Things that destroy the game

  • Violence
  • Foul language
  • Persistent fouling
  • Dissent

Rarely a problem in young divisions

Laws also include cynical procedural fouls

Encroachment, substitution procedures, etc.

These should never produce cautions in young divisions

Use verbal warnings with troublesome players

  • involve coach if necessary
  • don’t use cards except under the most awful circumstances
free kick law 13
Free kick (Law 13)
  • Indirect Free Kick (IFK)
    • Goal cannot be scored until another player touches the ball(like all U8 FK), if ball goes in goal untouched from IFK, restart is GK.
    • Referee must signal by raising one arm, and keep raised until ball is played by another player or out of play.
  • Direct Free Kick (DFK)
    • Goal can be scored without another player touching the ball first.
    • Never given in opponents’ penalty area (Penalty Kick instead).
  • For both cases, the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves.
free kick law 1354
Free kick (Law 13)
  • When referee has stopped play for an infringement
  • Any member of the team awarded the kick places the ball and kicks it.
  • Ball is placed where infringement occurred except
    • If ball is in penalty area and kick is given to attackers, If it is direct, it’s a penalty kick! If indirect, move it out to edge of goal area.
    • If ball is in penalty area and kick is given to defenders, If in goal area, treat it as a goal kickIn any case, ball must clear penalty area before next touch.
  • Opponents all stay 10 yards away
  • Next played by another player. (If same player, IFK.)
penalty kick law 14
Penalty kick (Law 14)
  • For a penal foul by defenders in their own penalty area
  • Ball is placed on penalty mark
  • Until ball is kicked,
    • Only kicker and goalkeeper are inside penalty-area
    • All others must be outside penalty-area, at least 10 yards from penalty mark (i.e. outside the penalty arc), and behind the penalty mark (i.e., at least 12 yards from the goal-line).
    • Goalkeeper remains on goal line, facing kicker, and between goal posts. (They may move laterally)
  • After signal, kicker must kick the ball forward.
penalty kick law 1457
Penalty-kick (Law 14)

Encroachment or forward movement by goalkeeper

Let kick proceed, then stop play!

Encroach Result is

is by the Goal No goal

Attackers Re-kick IFK or GK

Defenders Goal Re-kick

Both Re-kick Re-kick

during the game
During the Game
  • Concentration
  • Signaling
  • Substitutions
  • Positioning
  • Mistakes
concentration
Concentration
  • Focus! Don’t let your mind wander
  • Don’t talk to spectators
  • Refereeing is not the same as "spectating"
  • Watch the players, not the ball
signaling
Signaling
  • Whistle (to stop), arms (for restart), voice (to explain)
  • Minimal and understated
  • For players, not for sidelines
  • Arm: Point to goalkeeper of “offending” team
  • Learn and give the official signals (Handbook, Law book) but use voice often in younger divisions
substitutions
Substitutions

Important because of the "Everyone Plays" (for at least a half) rule

At roughly the midpoint of each half,

Pick a moment when the ball is out of play, OR

If >2 minutes past midpoint, stop play near midfield.

Whistle; Call (benches) for substitutions

Politely insist that coaches expedite this (no meetings; drinks; etc.)

Mark on game card who is now OUT

Count players; visually check ‘keepers; restart (play and watch)

Only other substitutions at halftime and for injury.

positioning
Positioning
  • Most calls are very easy if you’re in the right place
  • How do you decide where to be on the field?
  • Chasing the ball won't work - it's too fast
  • Better to decide where to be and move there early
what are we looking for
What are we looking for?
  • Injuries
  • Fouls
  • Goal
  • Offside
  • Ball out of play - goal line
  • Ball out of play - touch line
where do we have to be
Where do we have to be

To call You must be

Injuries Near ball

Fouls Near ball

Goal On goal line

Offside 2nd last defender

Ball out of play - goal line On goal line

Ball out of play - touch line On touch line

Not the same place all the time!

viewpoints of play
Viewpoints of Play

Offside

Direction of play

Fouls

Goal Line

Injuries

Touch line

three referee diagonal system
Three referee (“diagonal”) system
  • One “center referee”; two assistant referees
  • Each assistant covers one touch and goal line
  • Assistants move along touch line to call offside

(Often referred to as “running the line”)

  • Thus, assistants cover two of the four corners
  • Referee covers center and other two corners
    • this produces a “tilted” or “diagonal” path
  • Referee trails play and focuses on fouls
  • Referee and assistant “box” play between them
boxing play
“Boxing” play

Offside

Direction of play

R

Fouls

Goal Line

Injuries

Touch line

AR

set play i goal kick
Set Play I: Goal kick

R

A

A

D

D

D

A

A

A

A

AR

A

D

D

AR

D

D

set play ii corner kick
Set Play II: Corner Kick

AR

A

D

D

A

A

D

A

D

A

D

D

D

A

R

A

A

D

A

D

AR

set play iii free kick
Set Play III: Free Kick

A

D

D

AR

A

A

A

D

R

A

D

D

A

A

A

D

D

AR

D

A

D

penalty kick mechanics
Penalty-kick mechanics
  • When calling foul, point to penalty spot
  • Clear penalty area (including arc) of players
  • Instruct players to wait for ball to be kicked, NOT for whistle to blow
  • Position and brief goalkeeper
  • Identify player taking the kick, place ball, instruct to wait for whistle
  • Take up your positions
  • Whistle and watch
the one referee system
The one referee “system”
  • What you do when your assistants don’t show up
  • What’s important?
    • Injuries, fouls, ....
  • Act as a center referee, trail the play
  • Stay towards the center
    • to minimize running while staying close
  • Recruit parent volunteers to run line
    • Tell them about ball out of play!
    • Don’t ask them to do anything else
the one referee system76
The one referee “system”

Direction of play

R

Fouls

Goal Line

Injuries

Touch line volunteer

mistakes
Mistakes
  • We all make them (even the World Cup refs!)
  • Make the best decision you can on what you see
  • Involve your assistants, if you are uncertain
  • Admit and correct, if possible
    • You can change a call (until restart), but
    • You cannot “un-blow” a whistle
  • Don’t try to compensate
  • Don’t argue or be argued at about it
  • Don’t brood on it
after the game
After the game
  • Return ball to correct team.
  • Observe post-game ceremony.
  • Thank assistant referees and ask for feedback.
  • Complete roster/game card reports.(“File” the cards in case they are needed.)
  • Maintain control of the field until teams have left the area.
summary
Summary
  • Learn the Laws
  • Think about and practice Mechanics
  • Don't worry too much about offside
  • Be gentle on Penalty Kicks
  • If you were a referee for U8 games last year, be a little more demanding than last year.
  • And don't forget to keep having fun!
how to teach yourself to become a better referee
How to (teach yourself to)become a better referee
  • Watch: AYSO, college and professional soccer
  • Read: Laws of the Game The Region Rules Text books (e.g., Fair and Foul, Ready Set Ref! )
  • Talk: With colleagues, and coaches and others
  • Attend: Classes and clinics for ideas and discussion.
  • Certify: To check your comprehension To validate it for others
regional referee certification
Regional Referee Certification
  • Law test on Full Laws:
  • Do take it
    • To learn
    • To reassure yourself
    • To demonstrate your knowledge to others