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3 Meter 1 ½ Pike Dive Emily Seaver, Anne Zarthar, Andrea Monterisi, Jen Grogan, Kara Noyes, and Chris Conti About Diving Diving was first developed in Europe and became a competitive sport in England in 1905 About Diving

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3 meter 1 pike dive

3 Meter 1 ½ Pike Dive

Emily Seaver, Anne Zarthar, Andrea Monterisi, Jen Grogan, Kara Noyes, and Chris Conti

about diving

About Diving

Diving was first developed in Europe and became a competitive sport in England in 1905

about diving3

About Diving

Competitive springboard diving is a form of acrobatics. It’s objective is to project the body upward off the board, complete a series of intricate and gracefully controlled maneuvers before straightening out to enter the water

about diving4

About Diving

All dives must have force to propel the diver upward and outward yet have the appearance of being performed with ease and control. A diver must learn to make different muscle groups perform independently with control. Divers strength train for power and control and constantly practice to maintain consistency

objective of the dive
OBJECTIVE OF THE DIVE
  • This dive is a Forward 1 ½ Pike off a 3 meter spring board
  • The objective of this dive is to generate force off a spring board with enough forward momentum to spin 1 ½ times
  • Then slow down and straighten out the body of the diver to create an angle perpendicular to the water upon entry
steps of the dive
STEPS OF THE DIVE
  • To simplify how to explain this dive, we dissembled it into 6 different parts;

Step 1: launch on the spring board

Step 2: airborne forward momentum

Step 3: positioning into proper pike

Step 4: body position during spin

Step 5: recovering proper body position out of pike

Step 6: perpendicular alignment into the water, (entry)

step 1 on the spring board
STEP 1: On the spring board
  • Before the diver even exerts a muscular force, there are two main external forces acting on the body;
  • Gravity and the Spring Board
  • When standing on the board, the weight distributed from the diver’s feet on the spring board has already acted on its deformation
  • The board itself is at a decreased mechanical advantage due to placement of the body at the end of the board
slide8
Two actions are happening;

Flexion and Extension of the lower extremity

During both Flexion and Extension; there are primary and secondary muscle groups involved in each action

*** all muscles involved in the springboard phase are third class levers, except the gastrocnemius which is a second class lever***
slide9
FLEXION
  • Primary muscles include; Iliopsoas, Tensor fascia latae, Sartorius, Rectus femoris, Adductor longus, and Pectinius
  • Secondary muscles include; Adductor brevis, Gracilis, Gluteus minimus, Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior, Rectus abdominis, Obliquus externus, Obliquus internus
slide10
EXTENSION
  • Primary Muscles; Gluteus maximus, Biceps femoris, Semitendanosus, Semimembranosus, Adductor magnus, Gastrocnemius, Erector spinae group, Plantar flexors
  • Secondary Muscles; Gluteus medius
slide11

Femoral on Tibial Knee Flexion

  • Flexion is ascertained quickly for two main reasons including;
  • To maximize the normal reaction force of the spring boards elasticity
  • To utilize the elastic qualities of the antagonist muscle fibers; Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, Tibialis anterior, and Hamstrings
  • To increase the Impulse; (force X time), so that it adversely effects the Momentum; (mass X velocity), of the diver
flexion

Flexion

***During Flexion there is little muscle activity due to the role of gravity propelling the diver into the board***

internal moment arm is at the point of insertion of the muscles
Internal moment arm ---is at the point of insertion of the muscles

EXTENSION

  • During this phase the Internal Moment Arm is at its greatest mechanical disadvantage;
  • The knee is flexed at its greatest angle for the dive
  • The spring board, due to gravity and momentum, is at its peak reactive force and is exhibiting Newton’s 3rd law
  • The most work through muscle contraction is exuded in this stage
why so much work
WHY SO MUCH WORK?
  • The normal human body when standing has the force of gravity which, in turn, gives the concept of weight
  • When the diver is at the point of leg extension, he is actually propelling more than twice his weight into the air
  • To accomplish this maneuver a diver must; propel his mass against gravity in the shortest amount of time for maximal efficiency, (which in turn is a demonstration of power)
optimal training exercises
Optimal Training Exercises
  • On non-weight-training; running, hopping, stair jumping, squat jumps, and drop (depth) jumps are done to develop the legs for power and plyometric movements
  • On weight training; squats, leg presses, plantar flexor machines, and power cleans
step 2 airborne forward momentum
STEP 2: airborne forward momentum
  • To obtain proper positioning and forward momentum of the dive the diver must;
  • Abduct his arms to a 90 degree angle
  • Flexion of the neck muscles-(major part of initial acceleration stage of forward momentum)
step 3 position into the proper pike
STEP 3: position into the proper pike

Forward rotation is gained with neck flexion, thoracolumbar flexion, and abdominal flexion

  • The optimal position is;
  • 90 degree angle of abduction of the arms throughout the spin
  • Complete leg extension,(0 degrees of flexion), and plantar flexion
  • Thoracolumbar flexion (varies with technique of diver)
step 4 body positioning during spin
STEP 4: body positioning during spin
  • There are many parts of the 1 ½ pike spin that have to be analyzed;
  • Stages of spin
  • Muscles involved
  • Angular velocity
  • Acceleration
  • Torque and power
  • And radius of gyration
linear vs angular velocity
Linear vs. Angular velocity
  • In order to complete the 1 ½ pike, there are two factors that need to be considered;
  • Rate of acceleration
  • Angular velocity
factors involved
FACTORS INVOLVED
  • Gravity pulls an object to earth at a constant of 9.8 meters per second
  • To properly time the amount of spins before entry, the person has to calculate distance to the water, and angular speed, (velocity)
slide21

---- (center of mass of diver in pike is higher in the torso because of the change of the externalmoment arm due to gravity)

(The picture above shows the proper position of the body during spin)

  • The diver utilizes his arms to slow his angular velocity
  • He also utilizes the open pike position, (which decreases angular velocity)
  • As inertia, (tendency of a body to remain at rest or resist change), increases due to the divers increases radius of gyration in the open pike, acceleration decreases
stages of spin and muscle involvement
Stages of spin and muscle involvement

The spin has certain main parts when it comes to muscle involvement;

Flexors and extensors, and core stabilizers

*all stages of this motion have ipsi-directional lumbopelvic rhythm, and plantar flexion*

  • During the angular rotation; (as seen in picture 1), there is partial neck flexion, thoracolumbar flexion, hip flexion, abdominal flexion, and elastic tension from hamstrings and glutues maximus
  • (Picture 3), the muscle involvement has changed slightly; with an increase of thoracolumbar flexion, abdominal flexion..(mainly rectus abdominus), minor hamstring extension and glutues maximus flexion

*gravity and the angular velocity is the main contributor to the external moment arms of the diver*

step 5 extension and recovery from pike
STEP 5: extension and recovery from pike
  • Once 1 pike turn is completed, the other ½ of a pike begins extension
  • Use of erector spinae, lumbar extensors, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings
  • Elastic tension of trapezius, subscapularis, and the rhomboids (to a lesser extent)
  • Synergists are Trapezius, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, pectoralis major, external oblique, sartorius
  • The arms extend to 180 degrees of full abduction
  • Extension and posterior tilt of the head and neck musculature
step 6 entry
STEP 6: entry
  • The muscles such as; the abdominals, the gluteus maximus, plantar flexors, quadriceps and hamstrings, arms at maximal abduction, and head at a posterior tilt via erector spinae group are all taut
  • The body has slowed enough for perpendicular entry into the water surface
slide25
REFERENCES

Armbruster, David A., Sr., B.A., M.A. Swimming & Diving. St. Louis, MO: The C. V.

Mosby Company, 1973.

Miller, Doris I., & Murtaugh, Karen. “Initiating Rotation in Back and Reverse Armstand

Triple Somersaults Tuck Dives.” Journal of Applied Biomechanics 2001: 17, 312-324.

Miller, Doris I., & Sprigings, Eric J. “Factors Influencing the Performance of Springboard

Dives of Increasing Difficulty.” Journal of Applied Biomechanics 2001: 17, 217-231.

Netter, Frank H. M.D. Atlas of Human Anatomy. Summit, NJ: Ciba-Geigy

Corporation, 1990.

Neumann, Donald A., P.T., PhD. Kinesiology of the Musculoskelatal System

Foundations for Physical Rehabilitation. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2002.

O’Brien, Ronald, PhD. Springboard & Platform Diving. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics,

2003.

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