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Services with Minorities. Chapter 17. Introduction. Social work has a deep tradition in social reform. Early efforts was in working with minorities and addressing such issues as immigration laws, relocation, and work with individuals.

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  • Social work has a deep tradition in social reform.
  • Early efforts was in working with minorities and addressing such issues as immigration laws, relocation, and work with individuals.
  • Social work is attempting to strengthen and broaden its approach in its effort to bring about institutional change that will benefit minorities in America.
minority problems
Minority Problems
  • Racial discrimination is real.
  • Carmichael and Hamilton describe “individual” and “institutional” as the two kinds of racism.
  • The first consists of overt acts by individuals, which cause death, injury, or the violent destruction of property.
  • The second type originates in the operation of established and respected forces in the society, and thus receives far less public condemnation than the first type.
minority problems1
Minority Problems
  • The Civil Rights Act that afforded minorities important lifestyle gains was passed on June 29, 1964.
  • According to the U.S. Census projections for the year 2000 the white population will decline slightly while minority populations will increase slightly.
minority problems2
Minority Problems
  • The Dual Perspective model developed by the Council on Social Work Education suggests that individuals develop two self images: personal (through the individual’s family and immediate community – the nurturing system) and social (through the society’s political, economic, and educational systems – the sustaining system).
two other perspectives
Two Other Perspectives
  • Cultural dissonance has been thought to be created by the differences between the culture of the minority group and the culture of the majority group.
  • Institutional racism deals with minority problems in terms of discrimination practiced in social structures.
  • The most glaring is found in the employment structures of the United States.
intervention with minorities
Intervention with Minorities
  • One theoretical model that seems to hold promis for systemic social work intervention with minorities includes 3 stages:
    • Individual intervention (traditional casework, cognitive theory, etc.)
    • Interactional intervention (ecological systems, family, communication therapies)
    • Sociocultural intervention (structural functionalism, sociocultural therapy).
  • On the basis of this understanding, professionals can objectively and openly help minority clients to identify goals by choosing to:
    • Accommodate to the majority structure so as to share in its social rewards
    • Reject to accommodation to the majority structure and build separate majority institutions
    • Strike a compromise between accommodation to and rejection of the majority structure
  • The second theoretical model, developed by de Anda, is entitled biculturalism.
  • Thrust was to propose a model that would help social workers conceptualize minority people living and being socialized in two cultures simultaneously.
social services
Social Services
  • A controversial issue is whether or not social workers need to be of the same color and race to be effective in working with clients and their problems.
  • Harper and Lantz view cross-cultural social work as both potentially damaging and useful.
social services1
Social Services
  • “Only by respecting the sameness of our common human needs and the uniqueness of our different cultural methods of meeting those needs can a person begin to become a competent cross-cultural social work practitioner.”
educational developments
Educational Developments
  • Three important parts of the educational venture relevant to minorities are;
    • Students
    • Faculty
    • Curriculum

In 1999, minority students made up 32.7 percent of the juniors and seniors in BSW programs.

educational development
Educational Development
  • Two major thrusts in relation to social work education for minority students are minority student recruitment and minority faculty recruitment.
  • Turner suggests that there are two major issues confronting social work education in relation to minorities:
    • How to equip social workers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable them to improve the status of minorities
    • How to attract more minority group students into social work education
educational development1
Educational Development
  • In addition to increasing the number of minority students and faculty, one important element of social work education should be altered as well: curricula
  • The four actions that a social worker should be able to perform in the minority arena include:
    • Recognizing racist policies and acts
    • Respond constructively to efforts to eliminate racism
    • Commit personal resources to change racism
    • Bring racist practices to the attention of those who have responsibility and power to stop them.
continuing efforts
Continuing Efforts
  • More than any other profession, social work has tried to address the problem of women, discrimination, minorities, and social groups.
  • The United States Department of Labor study indicated that unless policies are changed, minorities will have less employment opportunities in the year 2000 than they presently have.