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Mosquito Breeding Habitats in SSP in Gujarat. Relationship of Poverty with Malaria in the Indian States Below Poverty Line in 1999-2000. Total malaria cases in India. % Malaria cases in BPL states. % P. vivax cases in BPL states. Total P. falci- parum cases in India.

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slide2

Relationship of Poverty with Malaria in the Indian

States Below Poverty Line in 1999-2000

Total

malaria

cases

in India

% Malaria

cases in

BPL states

% P. vivax

cases

in BPL

states

Total

P. falci-

parum

cases

in India

% P.falci-parum

cases

in BPL states

Total

malaria

cases

in BPL

states

% NAMP

population

in BPL states

at risk of

malaria

Total

P. vivax

cases

in India

Year

1965 28.9999,667 29,576 29.67 73,504 29.24 26,163 30.89

1970 50.35 694,017 199,743 28.78 593,902 26.08 100,115 44.98

1975 50.01 5,166,142 1,843,681 35.68 4,436,891 29.70 729,251 72.09

1980 49.82 2,898,140 1,055,750 36.42 2,310,129 26.47 588,011 75.51

1985 49.86 1,864,380 940,788 50.46 1,319,375 39.11 545,005 77.94

1990 50.15 2,018,783 804,148 39.83 1,266,665 27.40 752,118 60.75

1995 48.47 2,296,008 1,465,078 50.06 1,503,877 37.25 792,131 70.24

2000 52.59 2,019,065 1,404,737 69.57 971,149 49.28 1,047,916 88.37

malaria and poverty
Malaria and Poverty
  • Malaria-wheels within wheels
  • Malaria- a development issue
  • Malaria control should rely on poverty alleviation for human development, social security & sustainable environment
malnad region india

Dense Forests were replaced by coffee plantations.

An. fluviatilis transmitted malaria disappeared.Malnad is healthy.

MALNAD REGION, INDIA

Malnad

50,000 Sq Km Area

slide5

MALARIA IN PUNJAB

  • Malaria epidemic in Punjab in 1908 caused 300,000 deaths in 20 million populations over a period of three years.
  • Malaria in Punjab flares up after July-August rains. The malaria mortality figures of Punjab from 1867-1943 revealed that in 77-years majority of malaria peaks were followed by 8-year cycle.
  • The relationship of rainfall with malaria was investigated and epidemic forecasting methods were developed in Punjab.
  • Irrigation changed the malaria epidemiology and the region was converted to endemic malaria.
rice cultivation and malaria in punjab
Rice Cultivation and Malaria in Punjab

% Share of Cropped Area

1970-73 7.6%

1996-98 28.4%

malaria control in karnataka in partnership with phc system
Malaria Control in Karnataka in Partnership with PHC System
  • Major silk producing region. Farmers unwilling to allow the use of DDT
  • High malaria incidence and deaths
  • Major Breeding habitats of An. culicifacies
    • Wells: Species A (Vector Species)
    • Streams: Species B (Non-Vector Species)
    • All wells mapped and fishes released
    • Malaria cases declined sharply
impact of fishes on malaria

Population 38000 in

93 villages

Impact of Fishes on Malaria

Malaria cases

Malaria cases

rise of malaria in ddt sprayed villages in 1998 fishes were released in problem villages

Fishes released

Population 52554

38 problem villages

Rise of malaria in DDT sprayed villages. In 1998 fishes were released in problem villages.

Malaria Cases

impact of sp spraying 1996 98 on malaria in 2002 fishes were released to control mosquitoes

Fishes

No Spraying

SP Spraying

Population in 4 PHCs

1.3 million

Impact of SP spraying (1996-98) on Malaria. In 2002 fishes were released to control mosquitoes

Malaria cases

slide15

Year

1990

496

91

1991

949

281

1992

4.00

2.0

5.00

805

196

1993

1.60

0.8

5.10

626

213

1994

4.90

3.0

5.40

1503

602

1995

2.30

1.0

6.20

1820

739

1996

7.40

3.5

7.70

2290

662

1997

9.90

5.0

9.80

5279

1764

1998

14.9

7.5

9.60

8872

3340

1999

10.2

5.0

13.88

14133

3919

2000

18.0

9.0

20.30

16764

7126

SITUATION ANALYSIS OF BETUL DISTRICT, MADHYA PRADESH

P. falciparum cases

Total malaria cases

Chloroquine Tablets in Lakhs

DDT sprayed in mt against 200 mt

% Coverage

bioenvironmental control of malaria in betul district madhya pradesh
Bioenvironmental Control of Malaria in Betul District, Madhya Pradesh

Results of Monitoring Malaria Incidence in Betul District

impact of bioenvironmental interventions in 100 million population in maharashtra
Impact of Bioenvironmental Interventions in 100 million population in Maharashtra

Interventions Started in 1997

Total Malaria Cases

P. falciparum Cases

impact of fishes on malaria1

Population 38000 in

93 villages

Impact of Fishes on Malaria

Malaria cases

Malaria cases

impact of bioenvironmental interventions in 100 million population in maharashtra1
Impact of Bioenvironmental Interventions in 100 million population in Maharashtra

Interventions Started in 1997

Total Malaria Cases

P. falciparum Cases

slide21

Editorial

United against malaria

“WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Campaign achieved some notable successes but it also proved that, without a much more flexible and variable strategy combined with poverty reduction, self reliance and sound environmental management, the war against this disease could not be won.”

Dr. Hiroshima Nakajima

Director General of WHO

World Health. 51st Year, No.3, May-June 1998

slide23

Dr. Halfdan Mahler, Former Director-General, World Health Organization who initiated the imaginative Small Pox Eradication Programme said“All countries benefit from the fruits of India’s TB research-all countries except India”

health catastrophe of 21 st century future impact of malaria

Health Catastrophe of 21stCentury- Future Impact of Malaria

Malaria problem will prove a great hindrance to socio-economic development in the fields of health, education, land exploitation, mining, road construction, agriculture, tourism et al. leading to greater poverty and under-development

slide25

SHARPENED OLD TOOLS AND UTILIZATION OF NEW TOOLS AND STRATEGIES WILL PRODUCE MORE FOCUSED AND SUSTAINABLE MALARIA CONTROL

new tools in malaria control
New Tools in Malaria Control
  • MALARIA DIAGNOSIS
  • Dipstick/pLDH tests
  • TREATMENT
  • Artemisinin & Drug Combination
  • ENVIRONMENT
  • Health Impact Assessment
  • VECTOR CONTROL
  • Situation specific based on stratification, An. Sibling species, Bioenvironmental Methods, Treated Bed Nets, Bacillus thuringiensis, Neem Based Repellents, Selective Spraying
slide27

POVERTY ALLEVIATION

STRATEGIES WILL

REDUCE POPULATION AT THE RISK OF MALARIA

slide31

ENHANCED COMMUNITY AWARENESS WILL HELP IN MALARIA PREVENTION AND EARLY CASE DETECTION AND PROMPT TREATMENT

slide32

NEW DIAGNOSTICS, DRUGS, DRUG COMBINATIONS WILL REDUCE MALARIA FROM EVEN THE MOST DIFFICULT TERRAINS

slide33

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSLate Professor V.Ramalingaswami, FRSProfessor M.G.K. Menon, FRSTHE INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL RESEARCHTHE NATIONAL ANTI MALARIA PROGRAMMEHEALTH DEPARTMENTS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENTSSCIENTISTS AND TECHNICAL STAFF OF THE MALARIA RESEARCH CENTREAND ITS FIELD STATIONSNATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS