Cognitive and Physical Development (Chapter 12). Second Lecture Outline : Jean Piaget’s stage theory Other models Videotape on preschool cognition (Magna M19). Concrete operational stage. Age 7 until 12; children can manipulate internal representations
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Cognitive and Physical Development (Chapter 12) Second Lecture Outline: Jean Piaget’s stage theory Other models Videotape on preschool cognition (Magna M19)
Concrete operational stage • Age 7 until 12; children can manipulate internal representations • Conservation of liquid quantity experiment: children now pass • Conservation of volume: Flubber or silly-putty • “Concrete” because physical demonstrations are needed
Formal-operational stage • 11 or 12 years of age onward; children can manipulate abstract concepts • Second-order relations: They can understand relationships between relations, e.g., division and multiplication are opposite • Algebra, geometry, ven-diagrams
A moving cannon shoots a cannonball straight in the air. Ignoring air resistance-effects, where does it land? Formal operations can get this right. Concrete operations may get it right, or need it demonstrated. ? ? ?
Problems with Piaget’s theory • Development is really continuous, e.g., reading skill • Failing tasks may be because of complexity of materials • Ages may not be accurate • Adults do not always show formal operations: Tim and the fire alarm • Largely biological
Vygotsky: Russian psychologist • Environment is critical: children internalize what they see and experience • Zone of proximal development Capacity Ability Ability Effective teaching Effective parenting Mediated learning
Information processing approaches • There is gradual change in our ability to process information • Attention Short term memory Long term memory • Changes in encoding, e.g., metamemory, strategy use, metacognition • An advantage is that the model is not domain specific • Maturation and environment important
Cognition in later years • Decrease in fluid and increase in crystallized intelligence, e.g., “Lost in Boston” • Overall changes in information processing, but no net deficits • Wisdom: Insight into human development and life • Greater awareness of what you do not know • Neural plasticity after strokes • Degeneration in Alzheimer’s
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease Gradual onset of symptoms: **memory loss **decline in cognitive abilities, such as thinking, understanding, and decision-making. **not as well known are the behavioral symptoms that accompany the disease. **many families often are not prepared for symptoms such as agitation, aggression, depression, or wandering **increase in symptoms over time