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## Daniela Kirilova Institute of Astronomy, BAS

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**NCPP**Primorsko June 2007Topics in Cosmology-2 Daniela Kirilova Institute of Astronomy, BAS**Outline**Introduction to Cosmology The Universe Dynamics The Expanding Universe – observational status Universe Parameters H constant Universe age The Expansion History of the Universe**Cosmological Principle is exact at large scales > 200 Mpc**(containing mlns of galaxies) It is a property of the global Universe.**2.1.The Universe Dynamics**Dynamics is provided by GR. The Einstein field quations read: , Finding a general solution to a set of equations as complex as the Einstein field equations is a hopeless task. The problem is simplied greatly by considering mass distributions with special symmetries. The matter content is usually modelled as a perfect fluid with a stress-energy tensor in the rest frame of the fluid:**Differentiating Eq. (1) and subtracting Eq. (2) we obtain an**equation for the energy momentum conservation or Friedmann expansion driven by an ideal fluid is isentropic, dS=0Frequently used relation between the scale factor andtemperature in an expanding Universe : R(t)~1/T**Number of relativistic degrees of freedom is a function of**T.**Thermodinamic relations for the energy density and number**densities n: These relations are a simple consequence of the integration of the Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distributions:**The Friedmann equation, Eq. (1), can be interpreted within**Newtonian mechanics. It takes the form of energy conservation for test particles bounded in the gravitational potential created by mass k=1 corresponds to negative binding energy, recollapse and over-critical density, where H2 k=-1 positive binding energy, expansion, under-critical density Three cases should be distinguished which foreordain the type geometry of the universe: Flat, an open universe, having Euclidean geometry, infinite in space and time. Spherical, a closed universe, finite but unbounded in space and finite in time. Hyperbolic, again an open universe, infinite in space and in time, but curved.**Possible scenarios:**green - a flat, critical density universe in which the expansion is continually slowing down; blue - an open, low density universe, expansion is slowing down, but not as much because the pull of gravity is not as strong. red - a universe with a large fraction of matter in a form of dark energy, causing an accelerated expansion .**According to Einstein's theory, the force law is modied.**Not only does mass gravitate, but the pressure, too, makes its contribution to the gravitational force. This is a very important modication, since pressure can be negative, leading to anti-gravity and to accelerated expansion.**The present value of this parameter H is called the Hubble**constant. It describes the rate of expansion of the Universe, and can be related to observations. Consider two points with a fixed comoving distance The physical distance is the relative velocity is This is the famous Hubble’s law To solve the Friedmann equations, one has to specify the Universe matter content and the equation of state for each of the constituents.**2.3.The Expanding Universe**Observational status**Hubble's Law 1912- Slipher: spiral nebula are receding**1920's- Hubble: v-d proportionality Distance-Velocity Relationship**Distances to Galaxies:**Step by step approach (the distance ladder) based on the assumption that cepheids, RR Lyrae stars have the same properties in other galaxies. The same for the SN explosions. These assumptions are supported by essentially the same spectra and light curves. variable stars: up to 20 Mpc; SN I (had nearly the same peak luminosity ): up to 400 Mpc; brightest Sc I spirals, which have about the same luminosity Tully-Fisher relation, between the rotational velocity of a spiral galaxy and its luminosity. Galaxies Velocities The shift of emission lines with respect to the frequency measurements by the local observer is related to velocity, and is used as an observable instead of the velocity.**Apparent, absolute magnitudes and**photometric distance If we know the apparent magnitude m and the absolute magnitude M using we can evaluate d (photometric distance): where d is measured in parsecs.**The Redshift**Systematic recession of objects, or cosmological expansion, leads to redshift. Note that cosmological redshift is not entirely due to the Doppler effect, but, rather, can be interpreted as a mixture of the Doppler effect and of the gravitational redshift. zc=v, for nonrelativistic velocities z<0.2, otherwise**From the Proceedings**of the National Academy of Sciences Volume 15 : March 15, 1929 : Number 3 A RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE AND RADIAL VELOCITY AMONG EXTRA-GALACTIC NEBULAE By Edwin Hubble Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution of Washington Communicated January 17, 1929 ……………………………… …..The results establish a roughly linear relation between velocities and distances among nebulae …………………… The outstanding feature, is the possibility that the velocity-distance relation may represent the de Sitter effect, and hence that numerical data may be introduced into discussions of the general curvature of space. In the de Sitter cosmology, displacements of the spectra arise from two sources, an apparent slowing down of atomic vibrations and a general tendency of material particles to scatter. ……. ….. the linear relation found in the present discussion is a first approximation representing a restricted range in distance.**The Hubble Law**cz = H d v measured in [km/s], d in [Mpc], hence H is measured in [km/s/Mpc]. H0 = 100h km/s/Mpc, 0.4 < h < 1.0 Corresponds to a homogeneous expanding universe (r, T decrease) Space itself expands • The Hubble law provides a scheme to find the distance to a distant galaxy by measuring its redshift. • Applicable for distances higher than those corresponding to peculiar velocities. • d=3000h-1 z Mpc • dH(t) =3t=2/H(t) at MD, dH(t) =2t=1/H(t) at RD • Hubble age 1/H0 • If r(t) and H(t) at any moment t, then • Not applicable for gravitationally bound systems.**2.4. Universe ParametersThe Hubble Constant**One of the "key projects" of the Hubble Space Telescope is the Edwin Hubble's program of measuring distances to nearby galaxies. The current CMB results show the Hubble Constant to be H=73 +3/-4 (km/sec)/Mpc.**Age of the Universe**If the universe contains a form of matter similar to the cosmological constant, then the inferred age can be even larger. In general in the case matter density is less than 1:**The universe is at least as old as the oldest globular**clusters that reside in it. Life cycle of a star depends upon its mass All of the stars in a globular cluster formed at roughly the same time: they can serve as cosmic clocks. The oldest globular clusters contain only stars less massive than 0.7 M. Observation suggests that the oldest globular clusters are between 11 and 13 billion years old.**Structure of CMB fluctuations depend on the current**density, the composition and the expansion rate. WMAP data with complimentary observations from other CMB experiments (ACBAR and CBI), we are able to determine an age for the universe closer to an accuracy of 1%. Current estimate of age fits well with what we know from other kinds of measurements: the Universe is about 13.7 billion years old!