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What is an LED?. LED stands for Light Emitting Diode This is how they work…. How Diodes work. A diode allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction, much like an electronic version of a check valve. . How Light Emitting Diodes work.

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what is an led

What is an LED?

LED stands for Light Emitting Diode

This is how they work…

how diodes work
How Diodes work
  • A diode allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction, much like an electronic version of a check valve.
how light emitting diodes work
How Light Emitting Diodes work
  • A Light Emitting Diode emits light when an electric current passes through it.
  • Basically, LED's are tiny light sources that fit easily into an electrical circuit.
why get light from leds
Why get light from LEDs?
  • They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a very small piece of semiconductor material inside them referred to in the “LED world” as a die.

They don't have a filament to burn out, and they don't get especially hot.

how are leds made
How are LEDs made?
  • These dies, the main component in LEDs, are processed in wafer form similar to silicon-integrated circuits, and broken out into individual dice or chips.

Chip size for visible signal LEDs generally fall in the range of 0.18mm square to 0.36mm square (smaller than a pin head). High power LEDs for lighting are yet larger.

internals of a blue led
White visible light starts with a die that emits blue light (It’s coated with Indium gallium nitride, causing the blue coloring)

The basic LED structure consists of the die, a lead frame where the die is actually placed, and the encapsulation epoxy, which surrounds and protects the die and disperses the light (see left).

Internals of a Blue LED
what about a white led
To create White light, a coating of phosphor is placed on the die.

The recess in the anvil is shaped to project the radiated light forward.

The die's top contact is wire bonded to the other lead frame terminal, the post, to complete the circuit.

What about a White LED?
so how do you get white light
So, how do you get white light?
  • As current flows, the die would normally produce blue light. But in this case another color is emitted as determined by the precise amount of phosphor applied to the die. That phosphor fluoresces to achieve a near-white light
  • That white light is sorted to colors like warm white, white and cool white and assembled in quantities in tubes.
these leds are mounted on printed circuit boards in shatter resistant polycarbonate tubes
These LEDs are mounted on printed circuit boards in shatter-resistant Polycarbonate tubes…

…with proper electrical contacts they are designed to replace



how long do leds last
How long do LEDs last?
  • LEDs have a mean time between failures usually in the range of 100,000 to over 1,000,000 hours. But, this is a long time for continuous operation, considering that a year is 8784 hours at most. *
  • Temper this with application, added circuitry and housing. In practice, the useful measure of LED lifetime is its half-life. When the light output falls off to half the original, an LED is deemed to have reached the end of its life

* Based on life decay model, 67-21 series lifetime can reach L70@ 25297 hr and L50@ 47466 hr under test condition of 20mA, 25 C and 60%RH.

how do fluorescent tubes work
How do fluorescent tubes work?
  • Electricity flowing from electrode to electrode in fluorescent lamps produce a charge causing electrons to travel through the argon gas-filled tube. This energy vaporizes liquid mercury inside the tube which in turn releases ultraviolet (UV) photons.

The ultraviolet light is transformed into visible light by the phosphors on the inside of the tube. In doing so, about 80% of the energy used is released as heat not light and, in a warm climate, that increases your air conditioning costs.

some facts about fluorescent tubes
Some facts about fluorescent tubes
  • Require inefficient, expensive ballasts
  • Generate higher utility bills
  • Significantly shorter life than LEDs
  • Poor performance in cold environments
  • Require immediate replacement, or have wasted life from group relamping
  • When broken, you have glass shards contaminated with mercury
  • Can sound noisy and flicker as they age
  • Dimming is too expensive to be practical
benefits of led lites
Benefits of LED Lites
  • Long life (50,000 hrs).
  • 60% savings in your

lighting energy bill.

  • No humming/no buzzing.
  • Do not generate significant heat.
  • Not affected by vibration.
  • No toxic components, no disposal costs.
  • Do not attract insects.
  • Efficient in cold temperatures.
what savings can i expect
What savings can I expect?
  • A building operating 12 hours a day can usually pay back the cost of the lamps in electrical savings within 24 months. The balance of the life of the lamps (7-8 years) can show savings of 60% or more over previous expenditures. Dollar amounts are dependent on the number of fixtures and local power rates.
  • A savings calculator is available. Merely plug in figures found in a lighting survey of your building.


how about even more savings
How about even more savings?
  • Dimming LED Lites (controlLED Lites) provide even more savings.
  • controlLED Lites can operate from a variety of control signals.
  • They can controlled by occupancy or light level sensors and be connected to existing building automation systems.